Skip to main content

Full text of "Place-names of County Longford : collected from various sources"

See other formats


Presented  to  the 

LIBRARIES  of  the 
UNIVERSITY  OF  TORONTO 

by 

Regis  College  Library 


COLL.  CHRISTI^GIS 
BIB.  MA  J. 
TORONTO 


PLACE-NAMES 


OF  THE 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


PLACE-NAMES 


M3 


OF  THE 

COUNTY  LONGFORD 

Collected  from  Various  Sources. 

CORRECTLY   SPELLED    IN    IRISH   AND  FULLY 
EXPLAINED  IN  ENGLISH 

TOUtft fllotes  ani>  ^lustrations*  ^ 

o 

53 

BY  P   <  O 

co  *>  t"1 

REV.  JOSEPH   MacGIVNEY.         ^  ^ 


U  CQ  ( 

J  ^ 
-J 

©ublfn:  O 
JAMES  DUFFY  AND  CO..  Ltd.,  Q 

38  Westmoreland  Street. 
1908. 


9  n  Q  £»  n 


PREFACE. 


 ♦  

THE  idea  which  led  up  to  the  production  of 
this  work  originated  with  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Langan,  D.D.,  P.P.,  Abbeylara.  The  Doctor  sug- 
gested that  I  should  compile  a  list  of  all  the 
place-names  of  the  County  Longford,  and  inter- 
pret them.  At  first  I  thought  the  work  too 
difficult,  but  on  taking  a  look  at  the  Maps  of  the 
Ordnance  Survey  of  the  County,  I  found  that 
many  place-names  presented  little  difficulty. 

In  order  to  avoid  guess  work,  which  is  always 
of  a  doubtful  character,  and  not  likely  to  gain 
credence,  I  got  permission  to  become  a  reader  in 
the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  where,  through  the 
kindness  of  Mr.  MacSweeney,  the  Manager,  I  had 
the  use  of  rare  and  valuable  books,  dealing  with 
the  ancient  history  and  topography  of  the  County 
Longford. 

Working  on  the  Ordnance  Survey,  that  famous 
Celtic  scholar,  Dr.  John  O'Donovan,  travelled 
through  this  County  in  the  year  1837.  He  col- 
lected all  the  traditional,  topographical  and  his- 
torical information  possible,  respecting  the  County. 
This  information,  partly  in  Irish,  he  carefully  wrote 

b 


vi 


PREFACE. 


down  in  his  "Letters,"  which  are  now  preserved  in 
the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  and  in  his  "Field  Books," 
which,  through  the  kindness  of  the  Manager  of 
the  Ordnance  Survey  Office,  I  have  been  able  to 
read.  I  found  that  that  learned  scholar  had  inter- 
preted most  of  the  place-names  of  this  County. 
For  the  meaning  of  other  place-names  not  found 
in  these  books  I  read  Dr.  O'Donovan's  Edition  of 
the  Four  Masters.  From  the  Inquisitions  of  the 
County  taken  in  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII.  and 
Elizabeth,  I  gleaned  much.  The  information  col- 
lected from  these  and  many  other  valuable  sources 
I  have  carefully  arranged  and  explained. 

With  the  spelling  of  the  English  forms  of  the 
place-names  I  have  given  myself  little  trouble. 
To  a  Gaelic  scholar  who  knows  their  Gaelic  forms, 
these  anglicised  names  look  most  absurd.  They 
are  almost  all  misspelled,  being  corrupt  forms  of 
their  Gaelic  original.  And  what  is  worse,  we  have 
come,  through  want  of  knowledge  of  our  native 
tongue,  to  look  on  these  corrupt  forms  as  correct. 
Up  to  the  present  few  of  us  know  the  meaning  of 
the  place-names  of  our  County,  they  are  empty 
sounds  to  our  ears.  We  invariablj^misspell  and 
mispronounce  them.  Now,  this  little  book  is  in- 
tended to  remedy  all  that.  It  will  show  us  the 
correct  spelling  of  the  place-names  of  the  County 


PREFACE. 


vii 


Longford.  It  will  tell  us  the  meaning  of  all  or 
almost  all,  the  place-names  in  the  County,  In  fine, 
from  it  we  can  separate  the  pure  and  correct  in  our 
nomenclature  from  the  impure  and  incorrect  which 
we  have  been  using  in  the  past.  The  old  Irish 
place-name  is  not  a  mere  fancy  term,  no,  it  de- 
scribes in  one  or  two  words  or  syllables  what  is  or 
was  the  prominent  physical  features  of  the  place. 
To  the  ear  of  a  person  with  no  knowledge  of  the 
Gaelic  Tongue  this  description  is  completely  lost, 
while  on  the  other  hand  it  has  much  knowledge  for 
the  mind  and  a  picture  for  the  imagination  of  the 
man  versed  in  the  language  of  Erin. 

It  is  said  by  some  that  Longford  is  one  of 
the  most  anglicised  counties  in  Ireland.  Certainly, 
its  position  in  the  Gaelic  League  is  not  a  con- 
spicuous one,  though  a  better  effort  is  now  being 
made  to  promote  the  study  of  the  Irish  lan- 
guage. I  take  it  that  most  of  the  intelligent  young 
men  and  women  of  the  County  know,  by  this 
time,  the  Irish  forms  of  their  names.  This  little 
book  will  teach  them  the  correct  Irish  forms  of 
their  townlands  and  nearest  post  towns.  So  that, 
with  this  knowledge,  there  is  nothing  to  prevent 
them  addressing  their  letters  in  the  Irish  Lan- 
guage. And  what  does  this  mean?  It  means 
that  every  letter  addressed  in  the  Irish  language 


vii  i 


PREFACE. 


is  a  little  Irish  lesson,  which  the  post  office  official, 
through  whose  hands  the  letter  passes,  has  got  to 
learn  whether  he  wishes  it  or  not  Thus,  we  can 
all  co-operate  with  the  Gaelic  League  in  diffusing 
a  knowledge  of  the  language  of  Erin,  the  lan- 
guage of  our  forefathers,  the  language  of  Sage  and 
Saint 

seosAtii  a.  triAS'otiitone. 

l><\  £eite  tDjAigitDe,  1908. 


The  materials  which  I  made  use  of  in  writing 
this  little  book  I  derived  from  the  following  topo- 
graphical and  historical  works  : — Dr.  O'Donovan's 
Letters  and  Field  Books  on  the  County  Longford; 
The  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,  Dr.  O' Donovan's 
Edition;  The  Tribes  and  Customs  of  Hy-Many, 
which  gave  me  some  information  on  Lanesboro, 
and  the  Callows  ;  The  Book  of  Rights,  translated 
by  O'Donovan  ;  Adamnaris  Life  of  St.  Columba, 
by  Reeves  ;  The  Book  of  Fenagh  ;  The  Vision  of 
MacConglinne,  by  Kuno  Meyer;  O'Curfy's  MS: 
Materials  of  Ancient  Irish  History  ;  O'Halloran's 
History  of  Ireland,  written  about  1778.  The 
Author  constantly  quotes  from  the  Ancient  MSS. 
of  Ireland.  Canon  Bourke's  Lessons  in  Irish; 
Archdall's  Monasticon  Hiberniciim  ;  O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia ;  Eriu,  edited  by  Kuno  Meyer  and 
J.  Strachan  ;  Publications  of  the  Ossianic  Society, 
kindly  lent  me  by  Mr.  Keena,  Oldcastle,  for  which 
I  return  thanks.  I  must  also  thank  Mr.  Coyle, 
ex-teacher,  Mount  Nugent,  for  the  loan  of  valuable 
books.    Gormac's  Glossary,  a  rare  and  dear  book 

ix 


X 


believed  to  have  been  written  by  Cormac  Mac- 
Cuilenan,  King-Bishop  of  Cashel.  "There  is  no 
work,"  says  Dr.  Healy,  "in  any  living  European 
language  that  gives  such  evident  proof  of  high 
culture  in  the  ninth  century  as  this  most  interest- 
ing monument  of  Celtic  learning."  Canon  O'Han- 
lon's  Lives  of  the  Irish  Saints;  Dr.  Healy's  Life 
of  St.  Patrick;  also  Ireland }s  Ancient  Schools  and 
Scholars;  Stuart's  Historical  Memoirs  of  Armagh  ; 
Dr.  Joyce's  Social  History  of  Ancient  Ireland; 
Lewis'  Topographical  Dictionary ;  Carlisle's  Topo- 
graphical Dictionary  \  The  Inquisitions  of  Long- 
fordy  preserved  in  the  Record  Office,  Four  Courts, 
and  in  the  Royal  Irish  Academy. 

These  Inquisitions  were  taken  in  the  reigns  of 
Henry  VIII.  and  Elizabeth.  The  place-names  of 
the  County  Longford  given  in  these  books  exceed 
twice  the  number  given  on  the  Maps  of  the 
Ordnance  Survey  of  the  County.  This  is  intel- 
ligible. In  the  sixteenth  century  Ireland  was 
thickly  populated.  Then  "  every  rood  of  ground 
maintain'd  its  man,"  who  gave  to  almost  every 
field  a  Gaelic  name,  pregnant  with  meaning.  Owing 
to  the  Cromwellian  wars  and  the  consequent  whole- 
sale eviction  of  our  forefathers  from  the  rich  lands 
of  this  fertile  County,  hundreds  of  pure  Gaelic 


xi 


terms  became  obsolete.  But  these  contained  in 
this  book,  as  well  as  the  notes  and  explanations 
added,  I  have  obtained  from  the  above  sources ; 
so  that  I  feel  I  am  able  to  put  before  my  readers 
a  genuine  explanation  of  the  nomenclature  of 
ancient  Anghaile. 

J.  A.  MacG. 


Abbeylara,  Granard, 

February  ijthy  1908. 

Dear  Father  MacGivney, 

I  have  carefully  gone  over  your  manuscript 
on  the  Irish  Place-Nantes  of  the  County  Longfordy 
and  found  it  very  pleasant  reading.  It  contains 
a  full  collection,  and,  as  far  as  I  can  judge,  a  satis- 
factory explanation  of  each  place-name.  Where 
there  was  a  doubt  as  to  the  exact  meaning  you 
were  careful  to  quote  the  best  Irish  authorities  in 
support  of  the  interpretation  you  finally  adopted. 
This  gives  weight  to  your  work.  I  think  the 
general  public  will  be  delighted  with  your  little 
book,  for  it  undoubtedly  contains  a  mass  of  useful 
and  interesting  information,  not  only  on  the  place- 
names  themselves,  but  also  on  the  Patron-Saints 
of  many  parishes  of  the  Diocese  of  Ardagh.  I 
am  glad  you  adopted  my  suggestion  of  pursuing 
this  line  of  study,  for  while  it  has  been  a  labour  of 
love  to  you,  your  diligent  enquiry  and  research 
will  be  fully  appreciated  by  the  people  of  the 
county. 

Yours  very  sincerely \ 

THOMAS  LANGAN, 
D.D.,  P.P. 


The  Hon.  WILLIAM  GIBSON,  President  of  the 
London  Branch  of  the  Gaelic  League,  writes ;-— 

moorhurst, 
Holm  wood, 
Surrey, 

tneA-oon  £031114111  25,  1908. 

Dear  Father  MacGivney, 

I  find  your  book  most  fascinating.  It  is 
representative  of  a  kind  of  work  which  might  be 
done  with  advantage  all  over  the  country.  If 
your  example  were  followed  we  should  have,  in 
every  anglicised  district,  a  means  by  which  the 
very  stones  might  be  made  to  cry  out  against 
the  modern  tendency  to  imitation.  In  any  case, 
Longford  is  to  be  congratulated. 

tThfe,  te  me  Ay  moji, 


Opinion  of  Mr.  THOMAS  CONCANNON,  Head 
Organiser  of  the  Gaelic  League: — 

I  read  the  proofs  of  Father  MacGivney's  Place- 
Names  of  County  Longford  as  they  were  going 
through  the  Press,  and  I  would  like  to  say  a 
few  words  of  the  impression  the  book  made  on  me. 

In  the  first  place  I  was  struck  by  the  scholarly 
research  of  which  the  work  gives  evidence.  The 
Reverend  Author  has  advanced  no  statement  for 
which  he  has  not  the  best  authority, and  to  obtain  this 
authority  he  has  spared  no  pains  and  no  expense. 

He  has  consulted  books  and  manuscripts  which 
are  so  hard  to  get  at  that  they  would  be  reckoned 
quite  inaccessible  by  a  scholar  less  determined  or 
less  in  love  with  his  work  than  Father  MacGivney. 
We  are  in  his  debt — if  for  nothing  else — for  hav- 
ing brought  the  kernel  of  so  many  valuable  books 
under  one  cover. 

This  patient  research  has  given  to  the  work 
an  authoritative  character.  I  might  have  been 
inclined  at  times  to  change  the  spelling  and  to 
give  a  slightly  different  meaning  to  some  of  the 
translations,  but  in  these  cases  the  Author  has 
always  the  support  of  O'Donovan  and  other  recog- 
nised authorities. 

xiv 


XV 


The  people  of  Longford  owe  Father  Mac- 
Givney  special  thanks.  He  has  furnished  them 
with  the  key  to  the  language  which  every  spot  in 
their  county  is  ready  to  speak  to  them  in,  and 
they  are  so  much  the  richer.  They  have  the  same 
advantage  over  the  people  of  other  counties  when 
they  go  among  their  hills  and  streams  and  rivers,  as 
the  tourist  in  France  with  a  knowledge  of  French 
would  have  over  his  companion  who  did  not  know 
the  language. 

In  explaining  the  topography  the  Author  has 
given  many  and  many  an  interesting  lesson  in 
history,  and  he  has  added  in  a  remarkable  degree 
to  our  knowledge  of  the  saints  who  have  given 
lustre  to  the  diocese  of  Ardagh. 

I  wish  the  book  a  great  success.  I  wish  it 
for  the  Author's  sake,  that  the  patient  labour  of 
many  years,  the  fruit  of  much  sacrifice,  may  be 
rewarded.  I  wish  it  for  the  sake  of  Longford  that 
it  may  stretch  out  its  hands  for  the  riches  that 
have  been  gathered  for  it,  and  for  the  sake  of  all 
Ireland,  that  others  may  take  heart  to  do  for  other 
counties  what  Father  MacGivney  has  done  so 
excellently  for  the  County  Longford. 

THOMAS  CONCANNON. 

September  qth,  1908. 


View  of  MISS  AGNES  O* FARRELL Y,  M.A., 

President  of  the  Ulster  Gaelic  College  : — 

bneipne, 
T>eifieAT>  £05111  1908. 

Dear  Father  MacGivney, 

I  have  read  through  your  book  and  found 
it  fascinating  reading.  It  is  quite  unlike  any  book 
on  place-names  I  have  ever  seen,  for  in  its  pages 
the  mind  of  the  seanchaidhe  and  the  heart  of  one 
who  loves  every  nook  and  corner  of  his  native 
district  peep  out  from  behind  the  knowledge  and 
industry  of  the  chronicler. 

At  a  cost  of  much  patient  labour  and  research 
you  have  gleaned  from  the  past  many  of  our 
legends  and  sacred  traditions,  and  in  doing  this  you 
have  given  an  example  to  all  Ireland.  Later  on  you 
will,  may  I  venture  to  suggest,  give  us  a  further 
edition  of  your  book  containing  the  names  even  of 
the  fields  and  the  fords  and  the  hillocks  of  Long- 
ford, so  that  even  the  smallest  relic  of  the  great 
though  saddened  past  may  be  honoured  among 
our  people,  and  the  names  that  breathe  of  the 
heroic  mind  may  all  live  again  and  vitalise  the 
stagnant  ways  of  our  modern  life. 

xvi 


xvii 


The  Ireland  you  speak  of  is  not  dead.  She 
is  rousing  herself  from  the  calm  of  many  ages. 
She  is  stretching  out  her  limbs  after  a  long  sleep 
of  the  mind,  and  by  and  by  she  will  realise  that 
much  of  her  energy  has  been  conserved  to  her 
even  in  her  own  despite,  and  much  of  her  primitive 
strength  is  left  unexhausted.  Other  races  have 
grown  hoar  in  thought  and  futile  in  speculation 
whilst  ours — except  for  the  few — has  lain  fallow 
for  centuries,  forgetting  the  ample  days  of  our  hero 
life  and  the  mind-world  of  our  early  thinkers. 

What  the  awakening  will  bring  only  One  can 
tell,  but  we  all  have  our  thoughts  and  our  hopes. 
The  signs  and  the  tokens  are  many  and  varied. 
This  book  of  yours  is  one  of  them,  and  I  wish  it 
God-speed  on  its  mission  and  a  full  measure  of 
success,  and  further,  I  hope  that  every  household 
in  County  Longford  and  many  households  outside 
of  Longford  will  look  upon  the  possession  of  a 
copy  as  a  matter  of  duty  and  pride. 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS- 
— ♦ — 

PAG* 

Fac-Simile  of  Inquisition  taken  at  Mostrim  .         .  3 

m-Amifcijt  LeatjiAtA  (Abbeylara)  .  ...  5 
Church  of  St.  B  rigid,  Ardagh  .  .  .  .13 

Ancient  Church  of  Ardagh  as  seen  to-day  .  .  13 
Dolman  in  Townland  of  Aughnacliff  t)&  Ctoice)     .  26 

Rev.  John  C.  Drumgoole      .  .         .         .  79 

toe  (Lough  Gowna)  .         .  .         .  .126 

Church  of  St.  Ciaran,  Inisainghin,  Loch  Ribh  (Ree)  .  136 
Church  of  St.  Rioch,  Inchboffin  ....  138 
St.  Columcille's  Monastery,  Inchmore,  Lough  Gowna  .  141 
St.  Columcille's  Stone,  Inchmore,  Lough  Gowna  .  .  148 

toe  nib  (Lough  Ree)  .  .         .         .  .175 

Cob^fi  ponntAn  (St.  Fintan's  Well).         .         .         .  215 


BBEYC ARTRON;  ttlA1- 
mSUItl  CATLURtltl,  Car- 
tron  attached  to  Abbey. 
tTl  ai  n  1  f  a  \\  (derived  from 
the  Latin  monasteriuni)> 
came  into  use  in  the  sixth  century, 
when  monasteries  became  numerous 
in  Ireland. 

CA|tcj\un  is  an  Anglo-Norman 
term  for  land  varying  in  quan- 
tity from  60  to  1 60  acres.  The 
average  size  of  a  cartrun  {Anglic^ ^cartron)^  was 
about  80  acres.  This  Abbey,  founded  by  Domh- 
nal  O'Fearghail,  Prince  of  Anghaile,  in  1400, 
had  one  cartron  of  land,  also  some  termon  or 
glebe  lands  attached  to  it.  It  was  a  small 
Dominican  Abbey  which,  after  its  dissolution, 
passed  into  the  hands  of  Richard  Nugent,  a 
name,  as  we  shall  see,  associated  with  the  spolia- 
tion of  the  monasteries  of  Lerha  (recte,  Leath- 
rathd)  and  Inis-mor,  Loch  Gamhna. 


2 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Abbeyderg;  ITi      Tl  1  SU1  tl  T)  e-Atlg,  red 
Abbey. — 0?  Donovan. 

T)e<AfA5  means  bright-red ;  it  is  used  as  a  pre- 
fix with  an  intensive  force,  thus  dearg-mheisge 
means  raging  drunkenness.  As  the  name  im- 
plies there  was  a  monastery  here.  According  to 
O'Donovan  it  was  a  long,  low  building  of  the 
14th  century ;  other  writers  say  it  was  built 
early  in  the  13th  century*  for  Canons  Regular 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Augustine.  From  the  In- 
quisitions taken  in  the  reign  of  James  I.,  it  is 
seen  that  this  monastery  was  maintained  by  io| 
cartrons  of  land.  A  monastery  with  its  adjacent 
buildings  was  sometimes  called  a  congbAit,  ie.}  a 
habitation. 

"  Inquisition  taken  at  Meathustruim  (Edge- 
worthstown),  in  County  Longford,  7th  March, 
XXXII.  Elizabeth,  before  Christopher  Browne, 
Knight,  and  John  Kiernan,  gentleman,  Commis- 
sioners of  our  aforesaid  Lady  the  Queen,  for 
inquiring  by  the  oaths  of  upright  and  lawful 
men  of  the  aforesaid  County,  concerning  all  and 
singular  manors,  lands,  tenements,  rents  and 
other   hereditaments  whatsoever,  in   the  said 


*  By  Gormal  O'Quinn,  Lord  of  Rathcline. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


3 


County,  by  the  said  Lady  the  Queen,  or  by 
any  of  her  progenitors  cancelled,  withdrawn, 
detained  as  in  the  Letters  Patent  of  the  said 
Lady  the  Queen,  by  commission  bearing  date 
at  Dublin,  21st  day  of  September,  in  31st  year 
of  her  reign,  more  fully  appears  by  the  under- 
mentioned jurors  s — 

"  Ross  O'Farrel. 

14  Conor  MacKeady,  Meastrom. 

"  Richard  MacKeady,  Affin. 

"  Lisagh  MacDonel,  Corridowe. 

*  Tyrlegh  MagTeige,  of  Allynagh. 

"  James  O'Ferral,  of  Mota. 

"  Teige  MacCahil,  of  the  Mona. 

"  Shane  MacEdmond,  of  Caltercullen. 

"  James  MacDonel,  of  Callock. 

"  William  MacKeady,  of  Meastrom. 

"  James  MacTeige,  of  Clonoger. 

"  Lisagh  MacMorogh,  of  Killiny. 

"  Which  jurors  say  upon  their  oath,  that  the 
said  Lady  the  Queen  was  and  is  seized,  and 
ought  to  be  seized  in  her  demesne,  in  right  of 
her  Crown,  of  a  cartron  of  land  called  Ello- 
ghen,  with  8  messuages  belonging  to  the  late 
dissolved  monastery  of  Monasterderg,  and  by 
the  Queen  from  the  time  of  the  dissolution  of 


4 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


the  monastery  cancelled,  abstracted,  detained, 
which  are  worth  by  the  year,  besides  deductions. 
6/6  Irish  money,  that  the  said  Lady  the  Queen 
is  seized  of  i\  cartrons  in  Monishallaghen  to 
the  said  Abbey  belonging  to  the  annual  value 
of  6/6  ;  that  the  said  Lady  etc.  is  seized  of  one 
cartron  of  land  in  Etowerboy  with  io  messuages 
belonging  thereto,  parcel  of  the  possessions  of 
the  late  dissolved  monastery,  value  6/6  Irish 
money,  that  the  said  Lady  is  seized  of  a  cartron 
of  land  called  Monard,  part  of  the  possessions 
of  said  monastery,  value  6/6  said  money;  that 
said  Lady  is  seized  of  a  cartron  in  Killenbea, 
part  of  possessions  of  said  monastery,  value  6/6 
and  one  cartron  called  Cloonmockory,  belonging 
to  said  monastery,  value  6/6. 

"In  witness  of  these  premisses,  as  well  the 
aforesaid  Commissioners,  as  the  jurors  aforesaid, 
have  affixed  their  seals  to  these  presents,  on  the 
day  and  year  above  said.  Delivered  into  the 
Exchequer  27th  day  of  March,  1590,  by  the 
hands  of  Tinalegh  O'Brien." 

This  Inquisition  shows  the  lands  that  be- 
longed to  this  monastery.  It  also  shows  their 
annual  value  in  Irish  money.  In  the  reign  of 
Elizabeth  6/6  was  equal  to  at  least  twelve  times 


From  Photo  by]  [  IV.  M. 

m-AiniSCm  leAttl&tA,  (Abbeylara). 
Built  by  Richard  Tuite  in  12 10. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


5 


6/6  at  the  present  day,  perhaps  more.  Abbey- 
dearg  is  now  a  crumbling  ruin. 

The  old  Abbey  was  situated  in  the  present 
parish  of  Carrickedmond. 

Abbeylara;  tn^ymisum  teAUtl^Ud,  Abbey 
of  half  rath. — Four  Masters. 

On  many  occasions  this  monastery  was  de- 
spoiled. First  in  1066,  when  the  original  in- 
stitution suffered  in  a  dynastic  dispute  between 
the  chieftains  of  Breffney,  and  again  in  1272 
when  Hugh  O'Connor,  one  of  the  Kings  of 
Connaught,  was  at  war  with  the  English  of  the 
Pale.  Two  of  its  abbots  became  bishops  of 
Clonmacnoise,  one  in  1398,  and  the  other,  John 
O'Mayle,  in  1447.  Mention  is  made  of  one  of 
its  abbots,  Cornelius  O'Ferral,  in  the  Vatican 
Papers  of  Pope  Innocent  VIII. 

St.  Patrick  erected  a  church  here  and  placed 
St.  Guasacht  over  it ;  his  feast  is  honoured  on 
the  24th  January.  It  is  traditionally  told  that  a 
labourer's  cottage  at  the  entrance  of  the  village 
from  Granard,  covers  the  site  of  this  ancient 
church,  of  which  now  nothing  more  is  known. 

"At  Lerha,  in  Longford  (says  O'Halloran), 
there  was  an  abbey  of  Bernardines  founded  by 
Richard  Tuite,  an  Englishman,  Lord  of  Granard. 


6 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


The  first  monks  of  this  abbey  came  from  that  of 
Our  Lady,  Dublin,  of  the  Order  of  Clairvaux. 
Some  say  this  house  was  founded  in  1210.  The 
founder  was  killed  the  following  year  at  Athlone, 
by  the  falling  of  a  tower,  and  was  buried  in 
Abbeylara."  Here  also  were  buried  many  of  the 
O'Farrells,  Princes  of  Anghaile. 

Tuite  came  over  to  Ireland  in  the  first  in- 
vasion and  settled  at  Granard.  In  1199  he 
built  the  Castle  of  Granard,*  to  defend  his 
territory  against  6  RAgatUxig  (O'Reilly)  of  East 
Breffney. 

On  the  30th  of  November,  13 15,  Edward 
Bruce  burned  the  old  town  of  Granard ;  on  that 
day  month,  according  to  tradition,  he  plundered 
this  monastery  and  made  it  winter  quarters  for 
a  short  period.  The  monks  fled  to  Athlone, 
but  returned  the  following  Spring,  when  Bruce 
had  departed.  Richard  O'Farrell,  who  became 
bishop  of  Ardagh,  surrendered  this  abbey  about 
1 541.  Its  possessions  were  very  large,  Tuite 
;  having  enriched  it  with  18  cartrons  of  land,  or 
about  1440  acres,  perhaps  more.  The  following 
record  which  I  take  from  the  Monasticon  Hiber- 

*  "  Where  a  large  mote  still  retaining  traces  of  a  shell  keep 
on  the  top,  marks  the  site.  "—J.  R.  S.  Antiqr. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


7 


nicum,  will  show  that  Abbey lara  was  an  institu- 
tion of  great  wealth  and  influence : — 

"On  the  surrender  of  the  abbey,  the  said 
Richard  was  seized  of  two  carucates  of  land 
with  their  appurtenances  in  Clonmore,  of  the 
yearly  value,  besides  reprises,  of  13s.  4d.;  four 
carucates  in  Lerha,  of  the  yearly  value,  besides 
reprises,  of  26s.  8d.;  two  carucates  in  Clone- 
cryawe,  of  the  yearly  value,  besides  reprises,  of 
13s.  4d.;  two  carucates  in  Tonaghmore,  of  the 
yearly  value,  besides  reprises,  of  13s.  4d.;  four 
carucates  in  Monktown,  value,  besides  reprises, 
26s.  8d.;  and  the  tithes  of  corn  of  the  rectory  of 
Monktown  of  the  yearly  value,  besides  reprises, 
of  40s.;  also  of  a  moiety  of  tithes  of  the  rectory 
of  Granard,  of  the  yearly  value,  besides  reprises, 
of  26s.  8d.;  a  moiety  of  the  tithes  of  the  rectory 
of  Drumloman,  of  the  yearly  value,  besides 
reprises,  of  13s.  4d.;  and  a  moiety  of  the  tithes 
of  the  rectory  of  Ballymachivy,  of  the  yearly 
value  of  10s.  The  rectories  of  Athlone,  Leva- 
naghan,  Clonmacnoise,  Tessauran,  Ballyloughlo, 
and  Reynagh,  were  all  appropriated  to  this 
abbey." 

"  Lease  under  commission.  Dublin,  26  Sep- 
tember, IX.  of  Elizabeth,  to  Sir  Thos.  Cusacke, 
Knt.,  and  lady  Jenett  Sarcefeld  his  wife,  the 


8 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


tithes  of  Ballenamanaghe  in  the  Annale,  of  the 
lands  of  lord  MacGennor  in  the  Annale  (these 
lands  lay  to  the  west  of  Lough  Gowna),  of  the 
lands  of  Mount  Carbre,  of  the  lands  held  by  the 
heirs  of  Morff  O'Ferrall,  of  all  the  Maghirt  of 
Granarde,  of  four  granges  in  Granarde,  of  the 
grange  of  Tonaghmore,  of  the  grange  of  Rin- 
colle,  Cowldony,  Clontrall,  and  Deraghe;  the 
rectories  of  Dromloman,  Ballmakier,  Ballekillen, 
and  Strade  (Street),  possessions  of  the  late 
monastery  of  Larro,  alias  Granarde,  near  the 
town  of  Granarde,  in  the  Annale  O'FarrelFs 
country.  £13  18s.  6d.  for  the  possessions  of  the 
monastery  of  Granarde,  provided  they  shall  not 
alien  their  interest  without  licence  of  the  deputy 
under  the  great  seal,  nor  let  to  anyone  unless 
they  are  English  by  both  parents,  and  shall  not 
levy  coyn,  livery,  or  other  unlawful  impositions 
- — consideration  20  morks." — Fiants  of  Elizabeth. 

It  is  traditionally  told  that  Richard  Nugent, 
better  known  as  the  Black  Baron  of  Bobsgrove 
near  Mountnugent,  gave  this  monastery  its  final 
death  stroke.  And  the  following  extract  gives 
a  colour  of  truth  to  this  tradition  : — 

11 IV.  and  V.  Philip  and  Mary.  This  monas- 
tery (Abbeylara)  situated  in  Le  Annaly  and  the 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


9 


lands  of  Tonaghmore,  Raicola,*  Cowldony,  Clon- 
crawe,f  Derraghe  and  BellamaneJ  alias  Bally- 
managhe  in  Le  Annaly,  with  two  cartrons  of 
land  in  Lickebla,  parcel  of  the  possessions  of 
the  said  monastery,  were  granted  for  ever  in 
capite  to  Richard  Nugent,  royalties  excepted." 

— Monasticon  Hiber. 

ABBEYSHRULE,  tn4iniSC1tl  StUJUAIR,  Abbey 
by  the  stream. 

Sruthair  is  derived  from  sruaimy  a  stream,  and 
etha,  food,  i.e.y  a  stream  abounding  in  fish.  There 
was  a  monastery  erected  here  about  the  end  of 
the  9th  century,  but  it  was  destroyed  by  the 
Danes.  About  the  middle  of  the  I2th  century 
O'Fearghail,  Prince  of  Anghaile,  erected  a  Cis- 
tertian  institution  here  and  enriched  it  with  20 
cartrons  of  land,  or  about  1600  acres.  In  the 
founding  of  tTUinifcift  LeAcjusca,  Tuite  proved 
himself  a  munificent  benefactor,  but  O'Fear- 
ghail  surpassed  him  in  the  erection  and  enrich- 
ing of  the  great  monastery  of  Shrule  § 

*  Now  Rincoola. 

t  Now  Culcrough,  in  parish  of  Abbeylara. 
%  Now  Cloug-h,  in  parish  of  Abbeylara. 

§  "A  fair  is  holdenhere  on  the  first  Wednesday  after  Trinity 
Sunday." — Carlisle,  Top*  Diet 


10 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


"Lease  under  commission  at  Westminster, 
8  Oct.,  VII.  of  Elizabeth,  to  Thos.  Bryam,  gent, 
the  site  of  the  monastery  pf  Shrowl  in  O'Ferral's 
country,  in  the  Annale ;  lands  of  Urre  in  the 
great  moor  of  Monedonoghe ;  four  eel  weirs  on 
the  water  of  Eyne;*  the  lands  of  Cranaghe, 
Ballemanagh,  Knockaghe,  the  Rectory  of  Shrowl 
alias  Urre,  three  copies  of  corn  and  the  Al- 
tarages due  to  the  vicar  excepted,  also  the  site 
of  the  monastery  of  St  Peter  de  Rubio  alias 
Monaster  Rerick  (i.e.  Abbeydearg) ;  the  lands  of 
Monaster  Rerick,  the  rectory  of  Rerick,  two 
copies  of  corn  and  the  altarages  due  to  the 
vicar  excepted.  To  hold  for  21  years,  at  a  rent 
of  £12  1 8s.  8d.  for  Shrowl,  and  £5  15s.  46.  for 
Monaster  Rerick.  Maintaining  two  English  horse- 
men. Not  to  levy  coyn." — Fiants  of  Elizabeth. 

Aghabo  ;  b6,  field  of  the  cows. 

The  sound  which  the  lowing  of  a  cow  pro- 
duces has  given  her  the  name  bo  ;  bo  is  cognate 
with  the  Latin  bos%  i.e.y  both  are  derived  from 
the  same  stem,  bov. — CP  Donovan. 

In  former  times  the  cow  was  the  standard  of 
value.  For  a  marriage  portion  so  many  cows 
were  given0    Given  in  payment  of  a  debt  a  cow 


*  Now  the  River  Inny. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


II 


was  called  a  sed ;  a  milch  cow  or  an  ox  to 
plough  the  land,  was  called  a  ri-sed,  i.e.,  a  king 
or  fine  sed,  and  was  equal  to  one  ounce  of  gold. 
The  worst  sed  was  a  yearling  heifer.  One  third 
of  the  cattle  given  to  discharge  a  debt  should  be 
oxen  to  plough  the  land.  White  cows  with  red 
ears  were  formerly  much  thought  of.  But  the 
Irish  were  not  ignorant  of  money  and  its  uses; 
for  we  find  them  in  the  eighth  century  giving 
money  in  charity.  "  In  calculating  an  eric  a 
ri-sed  was  the  unit." — (J Curry. 

AGHADOWERY;  AC  AT)  T)tl1tie,  watery  land. 
This  place  is  in  the  parish  of  Drumlish. 

Dobar  an  old  Irish  word,  also  means  water, 
The  word  gaoth  is  found  in  Ulster  and  Con- 
naught,  and  means  a  fresh-water  stream  into 
which  the  tide  flows,  thus  Gaoth-doir,  now 
Gweedore,  in  Donegal.  Gaoth-beara  (Gwee- 
barra).  Biorra  also  means  water.  Biorra  (now 
Birr  in  King's  County),  so  called  because  of  its 
spring  wells. 

Aghafin  ;  AC^VO  porm,  fine  field. 

Poiiti,  fair  is  opposed  to  pu<vd,  red. 

Fear-fionn,  a  fair-haired  man.  The  surname 
Morany  derived  from  mofi-porm,  means  great 
fair-haired. 


12 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


AGHAGA;  AC  AX)  J$A£,  field  of  arrows  or  spears. 
Gath  means  a  heavy  spear.  Mirind^  derived 
from  rni,  evil,  and  rind,  a  point,      a  spear  with  a 
point  likely  to  cause  death.    Astol>  not  unlike 
the  Latin  hasta,  means  a  long  spear. 

Aghaloora;  ACAX)  VUTIA15,  St.  Lurach's  field. 
There  was  a  St.  Lurach. — G  Donovan. 

Aghalust;  AC  AX)  LoiSUe,  field  of  the  kneading 
trough. 

AGHAMORE;  AC  AX)  motl,  big  plain,  or  field. 
Aghavadden;  AC  AX)  IT)  AX)  ATI,  Maden's  field. 

AGHENTEMPLE;  ACAX)  ATI  ue^tTiptntt*  field 
of  the  church. 

Allen agh;  A\\XeAK)AC,  rocky. 

Copn-Aitt  (now  Cornwall),  means  horny  cliff. 
X)un-Ap-Aitt  (now  Doneraile),  fort  on  the  cliff. 

ANGUS;  UITI  AOtljtllSA,  Angus'  district. 

Ufy  is  a  common  word  for  land  as  contra- 
distinguished from  sea,  water.  This  was  the 
name  of  a  place  in  the  townland  of  Aughanoran, 

*  T)  and  C  are  never  aspirated  after  the  article  in  the 
masculine  genitive.    See  O'Growney,  Part  IV.,  p.  17. 


Church  of  St.  Brigid,  Ardagh. 


Ancient  Church  of  Ardagh  as  seen  to=day. 

Founded  by  St.  Mel  in  the  5th  Century, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


13 


parish  of  Scrabby,  County  Cavan.  This  place 
cannot  now  be  identified. 

ANNAGH;  eAtlAC,  a  marsh. 

Annaghbeg;  e^\11>dC  b&Ag,  small  marsh. 

ANNAGHCOLLEN;  eAtlAC  COlU/m,  little  wood 
by  the  marsh. 

Annaghdaniel;  eAtlAt  T)OrhnAltt,  Daniel's 
marsh. 

Domhnall  is  derived  from  domhan,  the  world 
and  uaitt*  pride,  i.e.,  the  pride  of  the  world  about 
him. — (J  Donovan. 

ARDAGH;  AtlT)-ACAt),  high  plain  or  field. 

In  most  place-names  ac<vo  forms  a  prefix. 
Ard  (anglicised  airf),  means  a  point  of  the  com- 
pass. "  From  all  airts  the  wind  can  blow."  Ara 
is  cognate  with  the  Latin  arduus. — Stokes. 

Maine,  son  of  Niall  the  Great,  and  Ajto- 
com<Mjice  eiftiwi-thte,  i.e.,  regent  of  all  Ireland 
in  the  absence  of  his  father,  had  large  tracts 
of  land  from  Cruachan  to  Loch  Ribh  (Lough 
Ree) — Book  of  Lecan. 


*  tlAitl,  is  derived  from  Aitle,  beauty.  Physical  beauty  no* 
unfrequently  generates  pride.  Italy,  derived  from  ioc,  a 
region,  and  Aitte,  beauty. — Bourke. 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


According  to  other  writers,  Maine  was  Lord 
of  South  Teffia,  which  comprised  the  southern 
half  of  the  County  Longford.  St.  Patrick  bap- 
tised Maine,  who  gave  him  Ardagh  as  a  site  for 
his  Church,  which  was  the  origin  of  this  diocese, 
to  which  it  gave  its  name. 

According  to  Carlisle's  Topographical  Dictionary 
there  was  a  monastery  of  Franciscan  Friars  in 
Ardagh,  which  was  reformed  by  the  Friars  of 
the  Strict  Observance  in  1521.  "Fairs  (says 
Carlisle)  were  holden  in  Ardagh  on  5th  April, 
26th  August." 

"  Inquisition  taken  27th  January,  37th  Eliza- 
beth, finds  that  there  was  here  a  Hospital,  Ter- 
mon,  Irenach  or  Corbeship  endowed  with  two 
cartrons,  and  the  Bishop  of  Ardagh  was  entitled 
to  the  chief  rent  out  of  the  several  Corbeships  in 
the  County  Longford."  "  The  See  of  Ardagh 
(says  Carlisle)  was  valued  at  £11." 

Annaly;  AnjAlte,  the  great-grandfather  of 
Feargail. 

"  Anghaile  was  the  tribe-name  of  the  O'Far- 
rells,  it  also  became  the  name  of  their  County, 
which  comprised  the  whole  of  the  County 
Longford.  According  to  Genealogical  MSS. 
the  O'Farrells  derived  this  tribe  name  from 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


15 


Anghaile,  the  great-grandfather  of  Feargail,  from 
whom  they  derived  their  surname  in  the  10th 
century." — Four  Masters. 

ARDAGHAGULLEN  (near  Granard)  ;  4tV0  A'  CtM- 
t/IHH,  high  ground  of  the  holly-tree. 

The  article  aspirates  in  the  genitive  mascu- 
line singular  "  In  the  spoken  language  An  is 
usually  contracted  to  <Z  except  before  vowels 
and  f.n — Dr.  Henry \  part  I.,  page  12. 

Maghchuillinn  (Anglice,  Moyculleri),  plain  of 
the  holly. 

Ardandra;  AVJO AVWKA,  elevated  ground. 
The  O'Farrells  had  a  castle  here. 

ARDAUN  ;  AKOAVl,  a  hillock. 
A  is  sounded  like  au  in  naught. 

ARDBOHILL;  'dtVO  b^(MlLt,  hill  of  the  shep- 
herd's crook. 

Bacally  derived  from  bar  cows,  and  caille,  a 
staff,  i.e.,  a  herd's  staff. 

Ardnacassagh  ;  ako  wa  5-ceise^c,  high 
ground  of  the  causeways. 

Tochar  M6ry  which  means  a  great  causeway, 
was  the  ancient  name  of  Arklow  in  County 
Wicklow.    Ceis,  a  causeway  made  of  sticks  and 


16 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


brambles  across  a  marsh,  thus  Keshcarrigan,  in 
Kiltubride,  County  Leitrim,  means  the  ceis  by 
the  little  rock. 

Ardneeve's  Well;  cobatl  ^tlDtlAOltTl, 
Archsaint's  well. — O* Donovan. 

"  This  well  is  in  the  parish  of  Kilashee.  There 
were  twelve  Archsaints  or  Apostles  of  Erinn : — 
Kieran  (recte,  Ciaran)  of  Clonmacnoise ;  Kieran 
of  Saighir;  Brendan  of  Clonfert;  Brendan  of 
Birr;  Columcille ;  Finnen  of  Clonard ;  Finnen 
of  Magh  Bhile  (Moville) ;  Columba  of  Terry- 
glass  ;  Molaisse  of  Devenish  ;  Canice  of  Agha- 
boe ;  Mobi  of  Glasnevin ;  Ruadan  of  Lorrha 
(It  was  St.  Ruadan  who  cursed  Tara). 

ARDOHILL;  4TfO  eoc^ltt,  literally,  high 
ground  of  the  yew  tree,  A  place  near  Bally- 
mahon. 

From  this  tree  many  places  got  their  names. 
UlAg  66  (Mayo),  plain  of  the  yew  tree.  CiU,  e6 
(Killoe),  church  of  the  yew  tree.  Iubhar  is 
another  name  for  a  yew  tree.  Iubhar-chinn- 
tragha,  yew  tree  at  head  of  strand  ;  this  was  the 
former  name  of  Newry,  County  Down.  Lissa- 
nure,  Gortanure  are  easily  understood.  Churches 
were  formerly  built  in  yew  groves  and  near  yew 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


17 


trees.  The  perennial  verdure  of  the  yew  tree, 
its  longevity  and  durability  made  it  an  emblem 
of  immortality.  The  pagan  Irish  looked  on  this 
tree  as  having  magical  powers,  and  hence  they 
used  it  in  their  superstitious  practices. 

ARDOLAUGH;  &WO  hill  of  charcoals. 

Charcoal  was  obtained  from  the  birch  tree,  it 
was  used  in  metal  work  and  gave  out  the 
greatest  heat. 

ARDS  ;  11A  h-^R'OA,  high  grounds. 

ASNAGH  ;  e-AStlAC,  trenched  ground. 

In  Kilkenny  and  Waterford  etarce  (now  eitre), 
means  furrowed  land  and  is  derived  from  Yy, 
(lower)  earth,  and  etar,  between  (higher  earth.) 

ASSOLAS;  AC  SOUVIS,  ford  of  light. 

A  ford  to  which  frequently  a  light  was  brought 
in  order  to  enable  people  to  cross  it  safely. 
This  is  the  name  of  a  place  on  the  shores  of 
Loch  Gamhna.    Solas,  derived  from  sol,  the  sun. 

Auburn  ;  ac&T)  n-A  gtieine,  field  of  the  sun. 

Grian,  g.  greine,  the  sun,  is  derived  from 
gyrando  {terrain). — Cor.  Gloss.  Galileo's  theory 
was  that  the  sun  is  the  centre  of  the  world  and 

B 


18 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


that  the  earth  has  a  diurnal  motion  of  rotation. 
It  was  not  for  this  theory  he  was  condemned, 
but  because  he  held  other  views  arising  out  of  it 
that  seemed  to  conflict  with  Theology.  His 
condemnation  was  issued  by  a  disciplinary  Con- 
gregation not  officially  sanctioned  by  the  Pope. 

AUGHABOY;  ACAX)  b  11 1*6e,  yellow  field. 

AUGHABRACK  ;  ACAX)  btlfrAC,  speckled  field. 

AUGHACUNEEN  ;  AC  AX)  &  COItlin,  field  of  the 
rabbit. 

AUGHACLAUR;  At  Ctdltl,  ford  of  plank, 
plank  across  ford  for  passengers. 

Aughacordrinan  ;  acax)  con  t>tuvi  ge^ri - 

A\Y\,  literally,  field  of  the  round  hill  of  the 
blackthorn. 

Draigkean&n,  derived  from  trog-aon>  wretched 
one;  means  a  miserable  tree,  because  of  the 
abundance  of  its  thorns.  This  place  is  in  parish 
of  Columcille. 

AughaderG;  ACAX)  T)e>Atl5,  red  field. 

Dearg  means  bright  red.  Rfaadh  (r&fus),  red, 
is  opposed  to  fionny  fair. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


19 


AughadegnaN;  'OAinjJiri,  field  of  the 

stronghold. — 0' Donovan. 

Daingin  is  derived  from  do,  difficult,  and  goin, 
to  wound.  From  goin  comes  the  English  word 
gun.  baile  <\n  txMnjjin  (now  Ballindine,  County 
Mayo),  town  of  the  fortification.  Dingle  in 
County  Kerry  means  the  same. 

Aughadonough  ;  &t&b  xyonncAX)^  Denis* 
field. 

AUGHADROMDERG  ;  AC&T)  *OROm^  t)eitl5, 
field  of  red  ridge.  Dromdearg  was  the  ancient 
name  of  Drumcliff,  in  the  barony  of  Carbry, 
County  Sligo,  the  most  northern  point  of  the 
6  Ttu<\ipc  (O'Rourke)  territory ;  it  was  also  the 
ancient  name  of  Downpatrick." — Ossianic  Poems. 

AUGHADROMCARN  ;  ACAt)  T)tlOmA  CA1fl.11,  field 
of  the  mound  ridge. 

Cam  means  a  heap  of  any  kind.  It  some- 
times marks  the  spot  where  some  warrior  was 
buried.  Corn-hill  (Cairn-hill).  Car  is  derived 
from  cam,  because  a  heap  is  placed  on  it. — Cor. 
Gloss. 


AUGHAFODDA  ;  &t&0  ^ATXA,  long  field. 


20 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


AUGHAGREAGH;  ACxVO  StieAC,  field  of  moun- 
tain flat. 

Aughakeel  ;  ACxVO  CAOt,  narrow  field. 

AUGHAKEERAN;  ACAT)  CAOtltAWtl,  field  of 
the  rowan  berry  or  mountain  ash. 

The  Irish  pagans  regarded  the  quicken  tree 
or  mountain  ash  as  sacred,  and  they  used  it  in 
their  superstitious  practices.  The  rowan  berry 
was  sometimes  used  as  a  simile  by  the  Irish 
poets  in  praising  beautiful  features.  "  Ua  f  caiI 
tia  g-CAop  if  bAine  <xn  l/it  'n-a  teacAin  aj;  c<xif- 
tmpc  f  io\[\\mx>e"  z.e.,  "  the  brilliant  colour  of  the 
rowan  berry  and  the  brightness  of  the  lily  are 
perpetually  contending  for  the  mastery  in  her 
cheek." — Eoghan  R.  (ySullivan.  T)juntTi-C40|i- 
6<Mrm  (Drumkerin,  County  Leitrim),  ridge  of 
mountain  ash.  Aughakeeran  is  in  parish  of 
Columcille. 

AUGHAKINE;   ACAt)   CAt)A111,  Kyne's 
field. — O  'Donovan* 

AUGHAKILMORE  ;  ACAt)  Cltte  tTlOlRe,  field  of 
big  church. 

Cill,  genitive  cille>  is  the  dative  singular  of 
ceall. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


21 


AUGHALAHAN  ;  ACAT)  teAUAII,  broad  field, 

Aughaloghan;  ACAt)  toCAItt,  field  of  the 
pond, 

Ldchan  means  also  chaff.   Pfieacan  toc<xn,  a 
magpie, 

AUGHAMORE  ;  ACAt)  WlOU,  large  held. 

AUGHANASPICK ;  AtAt)  AH  eASpOlg,  field  of 
the  bishop. 

When  St.  Patrick  began  to  consecrate  bishops 
he  found  that  the  Irish  language  had  no  word 
for  bishop,  and,  consequently,  he  had  to  borrow 
the  Latin  episcopus>  which,  Gaelicised,  became 
e^fpog.  Easpog  is  found  in  surnames,  thus 
Gillespie  is  the  Anglicised  form  of  MacGiolla 
Easpoig,  son  of  the  servant  or  follower  of 
the  bishop.  Giolla  at  first  meant  a  youth,  then 
it  came  to  mean  servant  or  devotee,  at  the 
present  day  it  means  a  farm  servant.  Gillie,  or 
Gilly,  a  man-servant,  is  a  Scotch  word.  Rath- 
aspick,  fort  of  the  bishop.  Aughanaspick  is 
near  Moydow. 

AUGHANORAN;  At  All  tltlAUl,  ford  of  the  cold 
spring. 

As  a  passage  from  one  territory  into  another, 
or  as  a  place  of  defence,  the  <xc,  or  ford,  was  an 


22 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


important  point.  In  the  "  Tribes  and  Customs 
of  Hi  trUitie"we  read  that  the  three  famous 
fords  of  that  ancient  principality  were  Athenry 
{At  tia  or  the  Ford  of  the  Kings ;  Athlone 
{At  ttiAiri),  or,  the  Ford  of  the  Loin  (for  a  fuller 
explanation  of  this  place-name  see  "The  Fair 
Hills  of  Ireland,"  p.  250,  by  Stephen  Gwynn, 
who  takes  its  etymology  from  the  Tain  Bo 
Cuailgne),  and  Ballyleague  {At  pirm),  or 
the  Ford  of  the  stony  place  of  Fin  MacCumh- 
aill.  Mullach  uar&n  (Mullahoran,  County  Cavan), 
hill  of  cold  springs.  Oran,  County  Roscommon, 
and  Oranmore,  County  Galway,  have  the  same 
meaning.  Uardn  may  be  derived  from  ur,  freshf 
or  from  fuar,  cold ;  the  f,  by  aspiration,  became 
silent  and  finally  was  dropped.  Aughanoran  is 
in  the  parish  of  Scrabby0 

AUGHANTROUGH ;  At  AW  UtlAlt,  field  of  the  holm. 

AUGHANTEEDUFF  ;  AtA*6  AW  U1ge  mill),  lite- 
rally, field  of  the  black  house. 

AUGHARAINEAGH  ;  AtA*D  UAlttieAC,  fern  field. 

AUGHAREA ;  AtA*6  XMAC,  grey  field. 

AUGHAREVAGH  ;  AtA*0  XMA?)At,  grey  field. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


23 


AUGHARICKARD ;  ACAT!)  tllOCAtVO,  Richard's 
field. 

AUGHASOLISH  ;  At  A'  SOtAIS,  literally,  ford  of 
the  light,  z\e.}  light  for  accommodation  of  people 
crossing  the  ford. 

Aughaward  ;  t)A1tlX),  Ward's  field.  This 

place  is  near  Ballinalee. 

Ward  (in  Irish,  Mac  an  Bhaird),  means  son  of 
the  bard.  The  Mac  Wards  were  from  the  earliest 
times  poets  and  historians  in  Ulster*  Profes- 
sions of  their  ancestors  have  given  to  many 
families  their  names.  6  Se<\ncAin  (O'Shanahan, 
or  Shannon)  means  descendant  of  the  historian; 
TTIac  ah  LeAga  (Lee,  or  Leech),  descendant  oi 
the  physician;  ttl<\c  Cfiuicin  (Curtin,  or  Mac 
Curtin),  descendant  of  the  harper — Cjiuic,  a  harp; 
HIac  An  UiompAttAig  (Tenpenny),  descendant  of 
the  tympanist.  The  order  of  bards  is  very 
ancient,  dating  back  to  the  days  of  Milesius* 
Each  of  the  five  provinces  had  its  chief  bard 
who  elected  the  Ajro-OllAtn,  or  Chief  Bard  of 
all  Erinn.  Eochaidh,  who  was  King  of  Ulster 
some  centuries  before  the  Christian  era,  and  was 
called  OtWh  Fotita,  or  learned  Doctor,  because 
of  his  great  erudition,  was  the  first  to  establish 
at  Tara  a  college  called  Mur-Ollamhan  for  the 


24 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


education  of  bards.  He  also  established  a  trien- 
nial parliament  at  Tara  called  1peif  UeAtfipAc, 
which  was  held  three  days  before  the  great  feast 
of  Samhain  (ist  November),  or  the  moon,  cele- 
brated in  the  temple  of  Tlactha,  on  the  Hill  of 
Ward,  near  Athboy.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that 
the  Teach  Modchuarta,  or  Great  Feis  House  at 
Tara,  was  750  feet  long,  30  cubits  high,  and  50 
cubits  in  width,  and  had  14  doors.  But  to 
return  to  the  bards,  they  held  rank  equal  to  the 
nobility,  and  enjoyed  the  first  seats  at  public 
banquets.  Those  who  took  out  their  full  de- 
grees at  the  Mur-Ollamhan  ranked  priores,  just 
as  the  doctors  of  the  great  School  of  Armagh 
preceded  all  other  doctors  in  Erinn.  They 
were  divided  into  three  classes :  the  Ottarh  |\e 
b|\eiceAthriAf ,  or  professor  of  Law ;  the  Ottarh 
pe  SeAticuf,  or  professor  of  History;  and  the 
Ot,t<MTi  |ie  Ceot,  or  professor  of  Music.  They 
were  men  of  great  wealth,  who  kept  open  houses 
of  hospitality.  Worthy  of  mention  in  this 
respect  are  O'Duigenan,  of  Kilronan,  County 
Roscommon,  and  Mac  an  Bhaird,  of  Tirconnell. 

O'Coffey  and  O'Higgins  were  bards  to  the 
O'Farrells  of  Anghaile.  From  the  Genealogical 
Map  of  Ireland  it  will  be  seen  that  O'Higgins  is 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


25 


a  very  old  name  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Gran- 
ard;  but  in  the  15th  century  they  went  north- 
wards, and  became  famous  bards  and  historians 
in  Ulster  and  Connaught.  The  O'Cuirnins  were 
bards  to  the  O'Rourkes,  princes  of  West  Brefney. 
The  O'Duigenans'Xvere  bards  and  historians  to 
the  MacDermotts,  of  Moylurg,  in  Roscommon, 
and  Marshals  of  Connaught.  The  Book  of  Bally- 
mote,  sold  in  1522  to  O'Donnell  for  140  milch 
cows,  was  compiled  by  O'Duigenan,  of  Kilronan 
This  book  is  now  preserved  in  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy,  Dublin.  Of  the  same  family  was 
O'Duigenan,  of  baite  Coittce  po§<Mfi  (now 
Castlefore,  in  parish  of  Fenagh,  County  Leitrim) 
He  was  bard  to  MacRannal  (Reynolds),  of 
Muintir  Eolais,  which  was  the  name  for  all  that 
country  now  known  as  South  Leitrim,  Pere- 
grine O'Duigenan,  of  Castlefore,  was  one  of  the 
Four  Masters.  In  compiling  that  great  work 
Dr.  Healy  places  him  on  the  left  of  Michael 
O'Clery,  with  the  Book  of  the  O'Duigenans  be- 
fore himc  The  last  of  the  bards  was  Carolan 
the  Blind,  who  died  in  1738,  and  is  buried  in 
Kilronan,  but  the  Four  Masters  record  that  the 
last  bard  who  held  the  rank  and  property  of  a 
Chief-Ollamh,  was  Mac  an  Bhaird  (Anglica 
Ward),  who  died  in  1609. 


26 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Aughboy  ;  At  tmit>e,  yellow  ford. 

Aughine;  ACAft  AT>Ainn,  field  of  the  round 
hollow. 

AUGHISKE  ;  At  tnsge,  literally,  ford  of  water. 

Aughnacally;  aCa*o  ha  CAitlige,  field  of 

the  nun. 

Cailleachy  a  nun,  is  derived  from  caille,  a  veil ; 
but  cailleach,  an  old  woman,  comes  from  cail%  to 
keep  house. 

Aughnacrannagh  \  aCa*  ha  5-cnAtitiAC, 

field  of  the  trees. 

Crann  (old  Irish,  crand),  a  tree,  is  derived 
from  ere,  clay,  and  fond>  a  base. — Stokes. 

AUGH N ACLIFF  ;  ACAt)  HA  CtOlCe,  field  of  the 
stone.    This  place  is  in  parish  of  Columcille. 

AUGHNACROISHE ;  ACAft  HA  CtlOISe,  field  of 
the  cross. 

AUGHNAFUINSHOG  \  AC  HA  ptJIIHISeOlge,  ford 
by  the  ash  tree. 

AUGHNAGARRON  ;  At  tIA  CeAtftArflAtl,  marsh 
of  the  quarter  portion 


From  Photo  by]  [Rev.  J.  MacGivney. 

Dolman  situated  in  Townland  of 

AUGHNACLIFF     (ACxXT)    tlA  CiOICe). 
It  gave  that  place  its  present  name. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


27 


AUGHNAGEERAGH  ;  AtAT)  tIA  g-CAOTtAC,  field 
of  the  sheep ;  here  c  is  eclipsed  by  5. 

The  article  eclipses  the  initial  consonant  of  a 
noun  in  the  genitive  plural — both  genders. — p.  1 5 
Christian  Brothers'  Grammar. 

Aughnagower;  ACAX)  HA  tl-5 Ot) ATI,  also 
5At)Att,  field  of  the  goats. 

tig  broad  gets  a  nasal  indivisible  sound  called 
in  Irish  njeAUAt. — Diarmuid  and  Grain. 

Aughnagreish  ;  ACAXi  11A  5-CR01S,  field  of 
the  crosses. 

Aughnahowna;  ACA*£>  tIA  tl-A1t)tie,  literally, 
field  of  the  river ;  nominative  plural  is  also 
<xibne. 

"The  ancient  name  of  the  River  Nile  was 
Abantri;  Ab  in  old  Irish,  as  well  as  in  some 
of  the  oriental  tongues,  is  father,  and  ouen,  a 
river.  We  also  read  that  this  name  {Abantri) 
was  changed  to  that  of  Niulus  in  honour  of  this 
Prince,  who,  by  aqueducts  conveyed  its  water  to 
different  parts  of  the  kingdom.  Now  the  name 
of  Niulus  was,  and  still  is,  peculiar  to  the  Irish 
nation ;  by  it  many  of  our  princes  were  formerly 


28 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


called,  and,  to  commemorate  this  great  ancestry, 
the  chiefs  of  the  Heremonian  line  glory  in  the 
name  of  O'Neill  at  this  day." — O'Halloran. 

Aughnamoddy  ;  ACAt)  flA  ttlATKVO,  field  of  the 

dogs. 

AUGHNAMONA  ;  At  tlA  tTlOtlA,  ford  of  the  bog. 

AUGHNASELLAGH  ;  ACAt)  tlA  SAlteAC,  field  of 
the  willow  trees. 

In  1430  O'Neil  marched  a  great  army  into 
Anghaile  and  went  first  to  Seanlongphort,  and 
from  thence  to  CoiLL-SaLac,  two  miles  south- 
east of  Meathustruim. — Four  Masters.  C01H- 
SaIac  here  means  wood  of  the  willow-trees. 
CltKMtt  S^iteAc  (Clonsilla,  County  Dublin),  mea- 
dow of  the  willow-trees.  *Opuitn  SaileAc,  ridge 
of  the  willow  trees ;  this  was  the  ancient  name 
of  the  ridge  on  which  St.  Patrick  built  his  church 
at  Armagh ;  SAiteoj;,  little  sallow  tree. 

AUGHNASHINAGH  ;  ACAt)  tlA  SlOtltl  AC,  field  of 

the  foxesc 

SiormAc  is  derived  from  nechy  one ;  if  fine,  that 
is  oldest ;  £&,  sionnach  is  the  name  given  to  a 
fox  because  of  the  length  of  his  life. — Cor.  Gloss. 

This  place  is  near  Ballinalee. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


29 


AUGHNASHINGAN  ;  ACA^  tlA  SeAtlSAtl,  field 

of  the  pismires. 

Seangan  is  derived  from  seang,  slender. 

AUGHNASKEAGH  ;*  ACAft  tlA  SgeAC,  field  of 
the  bushes. 

SgeAc  ge<xt,  a  whitethorn  bush. 

AUGHNASKILLOGE ;  ACxVO  tlA  SSIOttOg,  field 
of  the  sliced  potatoes. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  townland  on  the  shores 
of  the  beautiful  Loch  Gamhna.  The  people  of  this 
place  were  remarkable  for  their  great  strength, 
It  is  more  commonly  known  now  by  the  name 
Dring. 

AUGHNAVALLOGE  ;  ACAT)  HA  t>-£6ltte05,  field 
of  the  woodbines. 

t)  eclipses  p  in  genitive  plural. 


*  Lisnaskea,  County  Fermanagh,  got  its  name  from  the 
inauguration  tree  of  the  Maguires — tiof  tiA  r^e-Ac. 


for  one  animal ;  the  rod  was  not  so  narrow,  with 
a  ct<Mt>e  or  fence  on  each  side  of  it,  and  was 
made  for  horses  of  the  mansion.  Ramut  was 
the  name  of  a  road  which  led  to  the  king's 
forts  ;  it  was  wider  than  the  rod  and  was  without 
fences ;  all  who  had  land  bordering  it  should  do 
their  part  in  cleaning  it.  The  slighe  was  a  high 
road,  so  wide  that  the  king's  chariot  and  the 
bishop's  chariot  could  easily  pass.  Lamrota  was 
a  bye-road  between  two  slighes,  and  made  for 
convenience,  Bealach  has  a  wider  signification 
than  bothar ;  a  bothar  has  fences,  a  bealach  need 
not  have ;  a  bothar  should  be  so  wide  that  two 
30 


PLACE-NAMES. 


31 


cows  could  fit  on  it,  one  lengthwise  and  the 
other  athwart,  with  their  calves  or  yearlings 
alongside  them.  bo£difiin,  a  little  road  ;  boi&y\ 
bo  jnrme,  the  "  milky  way";  beAUxc  <xn  T)oini'r? 
(now  Ballaghaderin),  the  way  of  the  little  oak ; 
beatac  CongtAif  (now  Baltinglass,  County  Wick- 
low),  Conglais'  road.  Each  road  should  be 
cleaned  of  brushwood,  water,  weeds  on  three 
occasions :  in  time  of  horse-racing,  in  winter,  and 
in  time  of  war0 — Cor0  Gloss. 

Ballina  ;  t>6tlt  At)  At  A,  mouth  of  the  ford 

Ballinamorf  ;  t)6tlt  AT\  AtA  mOltl,  mouth  of 
the  large  ford, 

BALLINAMONY;  t)Alte  X\A  m011A,  town  of  the 
bog. 

Baile  originally  meant  a  homestead  with  its 
out-houses,  but  in  course  of  time  it  came  to 
mean  a  townland.  b<\ite  rnofi,  a  large  town,  a 
market  town.  "  The  Irish  call  a  village  or 
hamlet,  be  it  ever  so  small,  by  the  name  b&ile, 
Anglicised  bally." — Donovan. 

BALLIN  AMUCK  ;  toetll  AtA  WA  tntnce,  literally, 
mouth  of  ford  of  the  pig. 

This  mysterious  pig  commenced  operations  at 
Scarva,  in   County  Down ;  by  its  rooting  it 


32 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


formed  a  large  fosse  known  as  the  "  Dane's 
Cast,"  and  in  width  measuring  from  70  to  80 
feet.  This  trench,  with  its  mound,  is  said  to 
resemble  the  Wall  of  Antoninus  Pius  in  Great 
Britain.  "  The  western  end  of  this  wall  is  called 
the  Swine's  Dike,  and  a  village  near  Langton  is 
known  by  the  same  name."  This  strange  ani- 
mal, it  is  said,  continued  its  rooting  till  it  came 
to  Lough  Gowna,  where  it  was  killed.  If  this 
be  true  some  other  mysterious  pig  or  powerful 
agent  must  have  taken  up  the  work,  for  this 
trench  can  be  clearly  traced  southwards  from 
Loch  Gamhna  to  Killina  Lough,  and  is  called 
by  the  old  people,  5^eAnn  ^  muice  T)uibe,  or, 
the  Valley  of  the  Black  Pig.  It  is  also  called 
the  Dunchladh,  and  was  the  boundary  line 
between  the  ancient  territories  of  Breffney 
and  Annaly.  Beulf  the  mouth,  is  derived  from 
biadh)  food,  and  e6lasy  knowledge,  z>.,  knowledge 
of  food  in  eating.  Muc>  a  pig,  is  derived  from 
mucna,  truculent,  for  the  pig  is  of  a  truculent 
nature. — Cor.  Gloss. 

Ballinalee;  t>eut  &CA  X\A  U\0$,  mouth  of 
ford  of  the  calves. 

Ballinalee  was  formerly  called  St.  Johnstown,  be- 
cause a  monastery  erected  here  at  an  early  period 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


33 


was  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist.  There 
was  also  here  an  hospital  or  biatach  maintained 
by  four  cartrons  of  land,  or  about  500  acres.  St. 
Johnstown,  or  the  old  "pocket  borough,"  as  it 
was  called,  was  represented  in  Parliament  by 
two  members,  till  the  Union.  Schoolland,  near 
Ballinalee,  was  left  by  Sir  James  Ware,  for  the 
education  of  Protestant  children,  and  hence  the 
name.  Cornwallis  celebrated  his  victory  at 
Ballinamuck,  in  Ballinalee,  where  he  strangled 
to  death  137  men.  A  mound,  known  as  Bully's 
Acre,  marks  their  burial  place.  "  Murder  ap- 
pears to  be  their  favourite  pastime,"  wrote 
Cornwallis  of  the  yeomanry. — Smyth. 

BALLINCLAR;  t>frut  AUA  At!  CtAITt,  mouth  of 
ford  of  the  plank,  i.*.s  plank  across  mouth  of  the 
ford  for  the  accommodation  of  passengers. 
An  aspirates  in  the  genitive  singular  masculine. 

BALLINCURRY;  t)A1te  An  CUTiRAlg,  town  of 
the  morass. 

Currach  meant  formerly  a  racecourse.  From 
currach  or  corrach  comes  corry  a  crane,  because 
cranes  seek  their  food  in  marshy  places. 

Ballindagny;  bAite  An  DAW^ne,  town  of 

the  stronghold. 

c 


34 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


BALLINLAUGHTA ;  t)A1te  An  teACUA,  town  of 
the  mound.    It  is  near  Mostrim. 

Leacht  originally  meant  a  dead  man's  "  bed," 
and  is  cognate  with  the  Latin  lectus,  i.e.,  both 
come  from  the  same  stem,  leg.  Leacht  now 
means  a  honorary  monument  of  any  kind,  gene- 
rally a  heap  of  stones. — G*  Donovan. 

BALLINLOUGH;  t)A1te  A11  toCA,  town  of  the 

lake. 

Imliuch  (now  Emly),  means  land  verging  on 
a  lake.  Loc  TX&ifibfieac  (Lough  Derryvaragh, 
County  Westmeath),  lake  of  the  oaks.  Ballin- 
lough  is  near  Bunlaghy. 

BALLINPHULL;  t3A1te  An  ptUtt,  town  of  the 
quagmire. 

BaLLINREE  ;  t)Alte  An  tllg,  town  of  the  king. 

In  ancient  Erinn  a  single  plough  was  sup- 
posed to  turn  up  1 20  Irish  acres  in  the  year, 
and  this  was  called  a  ploughland;  12  plough- 
lands  were  equal  to  a  bally  or  townland,  and  30 
ballys  were  equal  to  a  tuath,  and  there  were  184 
tuatha  in  all  Ireland. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


35 


120  X  12  x  30  X  184=7,948,800  acres. 

There  are  in  Ireland,  20,815,464  English  acres, 
From  this  it  will  be  seen  that  the  old  Irish  acre 
was  nearly  three  times  larger  than  the  English 
acre.  "  The  acre  of  the  measure  of  the  Gaels  is 
twice  or  thrice  greater  than  the  acre  of  the 
division  of  the  Galls.,, — Joyce. 

The  governor  of  the  tuath,  which  in  extent 
was  equal  to  the  modern  barony,  was  called  a 
Hi,  or  king.  It  was  the  smallest  division  whose 
ruler  could  claim  the  title  tli.  Now,  there  were 
four  classes  of  kings  in  ancient  Erinn,  viz.,  the 
^ivo-tli,  or  king  of  all  Ireland  ;  the  king  of  the 
province;  the  king  of  the  lT)6|i  cuau  (Mor 
tuath),  i.e.,  three  or  four  tuatha  together  ;  and 
the  king  of  the  tuath.  In  theory  the  king  of 
the  tuath  was  subject  to  the  king  of  the  mor 
tuath,  and  the  king  of  the  mor  tuath  to  the 
king  of  the  province,  and  so  on  ;  but  we  know 
this  in  fact  was  not  the  case,  because  these  kings 
were  constantly  at  war  with  one  another.  Brian 
Boroimhe  (pronounced  Boru),  was  the  only  king 
who,  in  ancient  times,  came  nearest  to  ruling  all 
Erinn.  Tli  is  often  used  as  a  prefix,  as  |tf§-feAji, 
a  perfect  man,  a  king  in  a  way ;  pi'5-(tti)-beATi, 
an  excellent  woman. 


36 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


BALLINROOEY;  t)A1te  An  tlUTDAIS,  where  the 
rue — a  plant  having  a  bitter  taste — grows. 

MacEvoy,  the  landlord,  has  anglicised  this 
place  "  Frankford."  It  is  on  the  shores  of 
Lough  Gowna. 

BALLINRUD;  t)Alte  AH  H01T),  town  of  ferru- 
ginous scum. 

This  townland  is  in  the  parish  of  Abbeylara. 

Ballinshroghan  ;  t>Aite  An  c-stiotAm,  town 
of  the  stream. 

Ballintleive  ;  t>Aite  An  u-steit)e,  town  of 

the  moorland. 

Sliabh  means  a  bog  or  marsh,  also  a  moun- 
tain. SU Ab  AtpA,  the  Alps.  Atpa  (now  Alba) 
is  the  Celtic  name  of  Scotland,  in  reference  to 
the  Highlands.  Ballintleive  is  situated  in  Derry- 
cassan  on  the  shore  of  Lough  Gowna. 

BALLINTOBER  ;  t)A1te  An  UOt)A1tl,  town  of  the 
well ;  tibra,  genitive  tiobraid>  also  means  a  well. 

CitL-ciobpAi'o  (now  Kiltubride,  County  Leitrim), 
church  of  or  by  the  well.  UiobjiAit)  Afiann 
(Tipperary),  well  of  Ara,  which  was  the  original 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


37 


name  of  the  place  where  this  well  was.— Joyce 
CttiAin  ciobjvAiT)  (now  Clontibrid,  in  parish  of 
Gortletteragh),  meadow  of  the  spring  well. 

Ballinulty;  t)A1te  Atl  tltUAlg,  town  of  the 
Ulster  man. 

"  As  Mumhain  or  Munster  took  its  name  from 
Mumho,  so  did  Uladh  or  Ulster  by  inflection  from 
Ollamh  Fodhla."  Ulster  was  also  called  Ctn^e 
Concobaifi,  or  Conor  MacNessa's  fifth  part,  be- 
cause formerly  there  were  five  provinces  in  Ire- 
land ;  Meath  having  been  formed  into  a  fifth 
province  by  Tuathal  Teachtmar,  about  the  85th 
year  of  the  Christian  era,  for  the  better  support 
of  the  monarchy,  and  which  was  called  "  mensal 
territory  of  the  monarchs  of  Ireland."  It  in- 
cluded East  and  West  Meath,  Dublin  and  Kil- 
dare,  Longford. 

With  permission  of  the  reader  I  shall  make  a 
slight  digression  here  to  explain  the  etymology 
of  the  other  provinces.  Connaught  is  derived 
from  Cond-ichta,  the  descendants  of  Con, 
viz,,  Con  Cead-Chatha,  or  Con  of  the  Hundred 
Fights,  and  hence  the  Arms  of  Connaught  show 
a  raised  arm  bearing  a  sword.  The  more  ancient 
name  of  this  province  was  Olnegmacht,  the 


38 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


etymology  of  which  is  not  given.  This  is  the 
famous  Con  who  agreed  with  Eoghan  Mor, 
King  of  Cashel,  to  divide  Ireland  into  two  equal 
portions.  A  long  chain  of  hills  stretching  from 
Galway  to  Clonmacnoise  and  Clonard,  formed 
the  dividing  line.  This  dividing  line,  called 
"  Eisgir-riada,"  was  protected  by  nine  thousand 
men. 

Eochaidh  III.  was  called  Mumho  because  of 
his  great  power  and  strength,  and  the  "  Psalter 
of  Cashel  tells  us  that  from  this  surname  Mun- 
ster  took  its  name."  He  was  the  32nd  monarch 
of  Ireland,  and  was  slain  at  Knockany,  in  Lime- 
rick. 

Leinster  a  spear),  got  its  name  from 

the  broad,  flat,  sharp-pointed  spear  used  by  one 
of  its  early  kings  named  Labhra  Loingsech. 
The  termination  ster  (derived  from  the  Danish 
stadr),  in  the  names  of  the  provinces,  was  added, 
and  means  place. 

"  As  Mumhain  or  Munster  took  its  name  from 
Eochaidh  Mumho,  so  did  Uladh  or  Ulster,  by 
inflection,  from  Ollamh  Fodhla ;  hence  it  would 
seem  that  Munster  was  so  called  from  its  supe- 
rior power  (Mumho  meaning  power,  strength), 
and  Ulster  from  its  learning/' — GHalloran, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


39 


UtcAc  is  the  Irish  form  of  the  surname,  Dun- 
levy.  O'Dunlevy  held  sway  in  Dal-Araidhe, 
which  was  the  ancient  name  for  the  County 
Down  and  part  of  the  County  Antrim. 

Ballyauran  ;  tXAIte  tlAfL&T),  town  of  the  cold 
springs. 

This  place  is  now  anglicised  Springtown, 
and  is  in  parish  of  Abbeylara.  The  people  have 
completely  forgot  its  original  name.  The  place 
is  remarkable  for  its  spring  wells  and  pure 
water. 

BALLYBEG ;  t)Alte  t>OA5,  little  town. 

Ballyboy  ;  bAlte  t)t!1>oe,  yellow  town. 
This  place  is  in  parish  of  Abbeylara. 

Ballybranigan  ;  t>Aite  tn  t)nAtiA5Ain, 

O'Branigan's  town. 

Ballybrian  ;  t)A1te  til  Tm\&m,  O'Brien's  town. 

Ballyclamy;  t)A1te  CtAt>rnett,  town  of  fences. 
The  name  of  a  place  near  Forgney. 


BALLYCLAR;  t)A1te  CtA1U,  town  of  plain. 


40 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


BALLYCLOGHAN ;  t)A1le  CtOCAItl,  town  of  stony 
ford. 

It  is  a  place  in  the  parish  of  Legan. 
BALLYCORE;  t)A1te  C01U,  just  town.— O "Donovan. 

Ballydaly  ;  t)A1te  m  t)AtA15,  O'Daly's  town. 

Formerly  many  families  of  the  name  Daly  lived 
here,  and  hence  the  name.  With  one  exception 
they  are  all  gone,  and  with  them  their  name ; 
their  place  is  now  known  by  the  name  Augh- 
nagarron  (recte,  Athnaceathramhan). 

BALLYDRUM  ;  t)A1te  T)ROmA,  town  of  the  ridge. 

Ballyduff;  tXAlte  X)tlt),  black  town.  There 
is  a  bog  here. 

BALLYDUFFEY;  t)A1te  til  t)UttUA1$,  O'Duffy's 
town. 

BALLYGAR  ;  t)Alte  SeAtltl,  short  town. 

Gearr  is  derived  from  the  verb  gearraimy  to 
cut,  for  what  is  cut  is  shortened. — Bourke. 

BALLYGARVE  ;   t)A1te  gAtlt),  rough  town. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


41 


BALLYGIBBOGH;  t)A1te  510t)AC,  rough  or  ragged 
town. 

BALLYGOWLEY ;  t)A1te  gAtttAC,  forked  road. 
This  place  is  in  parish  of  Street.  5°^°5>a 
fork  in  a  tree,  also  the  fork  made  by  the  division 
of  a  large  ridge  into  two  ridges,  is  called  by  Irish 
speakers  a  gabhlog. 

Ballyglassin  ;  t)A1te  'T  5tA1S1t1,  O'Glasheen's 
town. 

Ballyhoolivan  ;  DAite  tii  SthteAl)Airi, 

O'Sullivan's  town. 

Ballykeeran;  DAlte  CAOtltAltm   town  of 
the  rowan-berry. 

There  is  a  place  of  this  name  near  Athlone. 

Ballykenny;  t)Aite  rtiAC  cioriAOiu, 

MacKenny's  town. 

Ballykilchrist  ;  t)Aite  true  giottA  Crtfosu, 

Gilchrist's  town ;  see  Aughanaspick. 

Ballynock;  tUVlte  Atl  CtltnC,  town  of  the  hill. 

BALLYLAR;  t)A1tetA1U,  town  of  central  position, 
prostrate. 


42 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


BALLYLEAGUE  ;  Detlt  At  A  t1A5,  mouth  of  ford 
of  stony  place. 

This  was  the  original  name;  then  it  came 
to  be  known  as  At  U45  pinti,  or  the  ford  of  the 
stony  place  of  Fin  MacCumhaill  (MacCool). 

In  1 220  Walter  De  Lacy  built  a  castle  here 
which  was  destroyed  by  Cathal  Crovdearg,  King 
of  Connaught,  who  died  in  1224  in  the  monas- 
tery of  Knockmoy,  in  the  habit  of  a  Grey  Friar. 

Ballymacormick  ;  b<dite  rhic  cotirn<dic, 

MacCormack's  town. 

The  correct  orthography  is  Corbmac,  which  is 
derived  from  corb,  a  chariot,  and  mac>  a  son. 
Corbmac  Gelatai  Gaeth  was  the  first  person 
called  Corbmac,  because  he  was  born  in  a 
chariot ;  he  was  the  grandfather  of  Cathaoir 
Mor,  and  lived  in  the  first  century  of  the  Chris- 
tian era.  Near  this  townland  is  a  chalybeate 
spring. 

Ballymacrowley;  baite  true  cftUA'oUxoic, 

MacCrowley's  town. 
Situated  in  parish  of  Granard. 

Ballymacegan;  bAit,e  rhic  tAxy^AW.^ 

MacKeegan's  town. — 0*  Donovan. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


43 


Ballymacwilliam ;  b^xue  true  tnVUdrn, 

MacWilliam's  town. 

Ballymahon;  baite  rn  AtgAtfiri  a, 

MacMahon's  town. 
BALLYMINION  ;  tMlte  mion^n,  town  of  kids. 

Ballymichan;  baite  til  ttiiA'OAC^in, 

O'Meehan's  town. 

BallymorriS;  b^lte  mtimjlS,  people  named 
Morris  lived  here,  and  hence  the  name. 

BALLYMORE;  b^lte  m6tl,  large  town. 
This  place  is  in  parish  of  Granard. 

Ballynacross  ;  bAlte  tlA  CUOISe,  town  of 
the  cross. 

Ballynagresh  ;  baite  ria  5-ctios,  town  of 

the  cross  roads. 

This  townland  is  in  parish  of  Abbeylara ; 
there  is,  as  the  name  implies,  a  cross  roads  at 
the  place. 

Ballynagall  ;  b^lLe       ng^tt,  town  of  the 
foreigners. 


44 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Gall  was  first  applied  to  the  Danes,  then  to 
the  Normans,  and  lastly  to  the  English,  potin- 
5<\Vt,  fair-haired  strangers.  *Ou1>5aU,,  the  black 
strangers,  applied  to  the  Danes,  g^"111!1)  foreign 
soil,  the  Pale.    This  place  is  near  Granard. 

Ballynagoshen  ;  b<Mte  VIA  g-COISfn,  town 
of  the  footmen. — 0' Donovan. 

Ballynahinch  ;  b^ite  ha  h-inse,  town  of 

the  inch  or  holm. 

Ballynakill;  b^ite  X\&  ClUle,  town  of  the 
church. 

Ballynamanna;  b^xite  n<\  mAn^c,  town  of 

the  monks. 

Manach  is  derived  from  the  Latin  Monachus. 
St.  Patrick  finding  that  the  old  Irish  language 
had  no  name  for  monk,  had  to  borrow  from  the 
Latin. 

Ballynamoney  ;  b>Aite  wa  moriA  town  of 

the  bog. 

Ballinascraw  ;  bAite  nd  sgtiAiue,  town  of 

the  green  sward. 

This  townland  is  in  parish  of  Clonbroney; 
there  was  formerly  a  school  in  Ballinascraw. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


45 


Ballynascullog  ;  bAlte  nA  SCOL65,  town 
of  the  farmers. 

Scoldg  originally  meant  a  scholar,  but  in  time 
it  came  to  mean  a  farmer,  because  the  monks 
devoted  much  of  their  time  to  cultivating  their 
lands  as  well  as  to  study.  The  surname  O'Scully 
(6  Scot<Mt>e)  means  the  scholar. 

BALLYNOE;  bAlte  n HAT),  new  town. 

Ballyrevagh;  bAlte  111 Ab AC,  grey  town. 

BALLYREEHAN;  bAlte  An  tllACAin,  Reaghan's 
town. — 0y  Donovan. 

BALLYRODDY;  bAlte  An  tlOTMIge,  Roddy's 
town. 

The  definite  article  is  frequently  used  in  Irish 
before  surnames — p.  193,  Christian  Brothers' 
Grammar. 

BALLYROE ;  bAlte  TltlAt),  red  town. 

Ballywalter;  bAlte  bAIUetl,  Walter's 
town. — CP  Donovan. 

Ballywillian  ;  bAlte  An  tiitntmn,  town  of 

the  mill, 

Muileann  is  derived  from  meil>  to  grind,  and 
linn,  a  pool.  King  Mithridates  of  Cappadocia 
was  the  first  to  invent  a  water  mill,  70  B.C.  The 


46 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


first  corn-mill  in  ancient  Erinn  was  erected  by 
King  Corbmac  MacAirt  (224-247  A.D.).  Seeing 
that  his  handsome  bondmaid  named  Cernaid 
had  to  grind  corn  daily  with  a  quern,  he  took 
compassion  on  her,  and  he  sent  across  the  seas 
for  a  millwright,  who  constructed  a  mill  on  the 
stream  Nith,  which  flowed  from  the  Neamhrach, 
or  sparkling  fountain,  on  the  hill  of  Tara.  Six 
seds,  or  cows,  was  the  wages  paid  for  building 
a  mill.  Goban  Saer  was  the  greatest  of  all 
builders ;  he  lived  in  the  seventh  century  and 
was  a  native  of  Malahide,  County  Dublin. 

BALOO;  bAlV  tt!5,  Lewy's  town. — 0? Donovan. 

Ban  now  ;  t>A11t),  a  young  pig. 

BARNACORE ;  tMTlft  n-A  COtt<VO,  top  of  the  weir. 

Barney;  Dentin  A,  a  gap. 

\ao\  'oum  beAfirnMg  (Lisdoonvarna),  literally 
the  lis  of  the  gapped  stone  fort. 

Barneygole;  bfrdtiriA  ;£db<Mte,  gap  of  the 
forked  place. 

Adrigole  (64*0411-54641 1),  between  the  prongs 
of  the  fork.  Gowel  (5A^At),  near  Carrick-on- 
Shannon,  means  a  forked  place,  probably  caused 
by  two  streams. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


47 


BARRY;  beATMC,  called  after  St.  beapac,  or 
Barry,  of  Tarmonbarry. — 0*  Donovan. 

Barraghmore;  b&dtlUAC  in  OR,  great  bare 
town. 

BARROO  ;  b<\tltl  fttlAT),  red  top. 

Barrnarinne;  bdtiti  via  tunne,  top  of  the 

headland  almost  dividing  Killinea  Loch. 

Rinnduin  (on  Lough  Ree),  castle  of  headland. 
Erected  1227. 

Bawn  ;  b^TVfrotm,  an  enclosure. 

An  enclosed  plot  of  ground  into  which  cattle 
were  driven  at  night  for  safety,  was  called  a 
badhbhdhun,  and  it  is  derived  from  6a,  cows, 
and  dun,  a  fortification. 

Bawn  Lower;  b^yfrotm  tOfiCAItl. 

Iochtair  is  derived  from  ic  (now  ag),  at;  and 
tir,  earth,  img.%  at  the  earth,  and  therefore  low. 
The  bawn  was  formerly  attached  to  a  castle  or 
fortress.  C.  Melaghlin  went  to  castle  of  Birr 
and  burned  the  bawn,  in  12 14.  The  O'Farrells 
had  castles  at  Bawn,  in  Parish  of  Killoe,  and  at 
Bawn,  in  Ardagh. 

Bawn  Upper  ;  b<v6tV6tm 


48 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Bawnavreagh;  b&X)¥>T)Xix)  tiA  b-piAtiac, 

bawn  of  the  rough  grounds. 

BEARN  ;  be^RtlA,  a  gap. 

BEAGHMORE;  bdU  ttlOtl,  large  birch. 

BEAGHABON  ;  beiU  AtXAtin,  birch  by  the  river. 

BEGNAGH;  bUlgneAC,  boggy. 

Blenavoher;  t)t6A11  A'  bou<Vltl,  hollow  of 
the  road. 

BOGGAN  ;  bOgAtl,  a  quagmire,  soft  place. 
BOHER  ;  bOUAtl,  a  road. 
BOHEREEN  ;  boUAltlltl,  little  road. 
BOHERMORE  ;  t)OUAtl  mOtl,  large  road. 

BOHERNACROISHE ;  t)OUAtl  tlA  CTLOISe,  road 
of  the  cross. 

BOHERNAMEELTOGE  ;  t>OUAtl  tlA  miOtUOg, 

road  of  the  midges. 

Bolea  ;  bHAItO,  an  enclosure  for  cattle. 

BRACKLIN;  DtieAC  CttlAflAC,  speckled 
town. — & Donovan. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


49 


BREAGHY ;  toReAtrhtng,  wolf  field. 

These  animals  were  formerly  numerous  in  Ire- 
land. As  they  were  dangerous,  they  were  run 
down  and  killed ;  the  last  native  wolf  was  seen  on 
a  mountain  in  Kerry  in  1728.  Other  names  for 
a  wolf  are  PaoIcu,  which  literally  means  a  wild 
hound,  Ulac  Uipe,  which  literally  signifies  son  of 
the  country.  Breaghy  is  in  parish  of  Cloon- 
broney. 

Breany;  DtlSAtlAl^e,  a  fetid  place,  a  slow- 
flowing  stream  which  consequently  becomes 
fetid. 

Breanriskculew  ;   totieAtmtnsc  -  CoitteAt) 

fetid  moorland. 

BRISKILL ;  t>tl10SC-COltt,  brittle  wood. 

Brosna  (old  Irish  briss-ni,  a  breaking  thing), 
a  bundle  of  withered  sticks  for  fuel.  Briosc, 
brittle,  is  not  unlike  the  Latin  priscus,  old,  and 
therefore  withered  and  brittle. 

BREEKINS  ;  t)R01 01111*06,  little  badgers1  warren. 

BRINAGH  ;  t)R1tieAC,  abounding  in  coarse  grass. 

BROCKLAGH  ;  DROCtAC,  badgers'  warren. 

BUNACLOY ;  t)tm  A'  CtAlt>e  foot  of  the  mound 
or  fence. 

D 


PLACE-NAMES. 


BUNDOON  ;  Dtitl  T)tfin,  lower  part  of  the  stone 
fort. 

BUNAHOWNEY;  t)tm  HA  tl-A1t>ne,  mouth  of  the 
river. 

Bunalough  ;  t)tm  A1  toCA,  lower  part  of  the 
lake. 

Bunanass;  t)tm  ATI  6ASA,  lower  part  of  the 
cascade. 

Essaun  (6<\fAn),  a  little  cascade.  Assaroe 
(beat  e^fA  tltiAt)),  the  cataract  on  the  River 
Erne  at  Ballyshannon. 

BUNESCA;  t)tm  UtSCe,*  mouth  of  the  river. 

Bunlaghy;  Dun  nA  tAtAlge,  lower  part  of  the 
quagmire. 

Loughdufif,  County  Cavan  (Lauac  mibf  ),  black 
quagmire.  Annaduff,  County  Leitrim  (Cauac 
'oub),  the  black  marsh. — Four  Masters. 

In  1830,  Bunlaghy  had  65  human  habitations 
and  299  souls. — Lewis'  Topographical  Dictionary. 

BURREN  ;  tMlttieAnn,  rocky  land. 

This  place  is  near  Derrycassan,  on  the  shores 
of  Loch  Gamhna. 


*pAific  An  potin-liifge,  Park  of  the  pure  water;  now 
Phoenix  Park,  Dublin. 
+  Also  tAiteac  x>ub. — p.  416,  Dinneen. 


AH  AN  AG  H,  CAtAtlAC, 
Kane's  place. 

CAHIR;  CAUA1TL,  a  round 
stone  fortress  of  dry 
masonry. 

Places  of  this  name  are 
numerous  in  the  West  and 
South  of  Ireland;  thus  Cahirdaniel  (Cacaiji 
*OoriitiAiU,),  County  Kerry;  Cahirciveen  (Cauaiji 
Sanobin),  County  Kerry;  Cahirlistrance  (Cacaiji 
tiofC|\eAin),  County  Gal  way.  It  is  said  that 
St.  Patrick  taught  the  use  of  lime  and  sand  in 
building. 

CAHIRDAGUE;  CeAUAin  X)etl5,  fourteen. 

Caherdaniel;  CAtaitl  'OOtflTlAltL,  Daniel's 
fort. 

CALDRAGH  ;  CeAttUtlAC,  burial  ground. 

Relig  (derived  from  the  Latin  reliquiae),  also 
means  a  burial  ground.    Relig  na  Ri'ogh  was 
5* 


52 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


the  name  of  the  royal  burial-ground  at  Rath- 
croghan,  where  the  Kings  of  Connaught  were 
buried.  Ruam  (derived  from  Roma),  a  place 
where  people  of  the  Roman  creed  were  buried. 
Cairn  teacu  (Tallaght),*  signifies  the  burial- 
ground  of  people  who  died  of  a  plague.  feAfu; 
also  means  a  burial-place:  Cluainfearta,  Ard- 
fearta.  CeaUxjiac  A  cogAit),  contracted  to  CetXX 
a  60541*6  (now  Kilcogy,  County  Cavan),  means 
the  burial-place  of  the  mutual  war.  Cojjait), 
derived  from  cotti-cac,  mutual  war. — Cor.  Gloss. 

In  James  Stephenson's  land,  in  Tromra,  parish 
of  Abbeylara,  there  is  a  place  called  Caldragh. 
It  is  traditionally  told  that  formerly  there  was 
a  populous  village  here,  that  a  tyrant  named 
Reilly,  who  lived  in  Higginstown,  evicted  all 
the  people  on  a  Good-Friday,  that  at  a  hunt 
soon  after,  Reilly  was  thrown  from  his  horse  and 
killed.  The  people,  who  tell  this  sad  story,  look 
with  certainty  on  Reilly's  death  as  a  punish- 
ment from  God — a  propter  hoc. 

Caldraghbeg;   ceAttUtlAC    t>eA5,  small 
burial  ground. 

Caldraghmore  ;   ceAttCtlAC  mOft,  large 
burial  ground. 


*  Cairo,  plague ;  teacu,  mound. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


53 


Callows  ;  CAtAt)  tIA  tt-Atl5A1te,  marshy  dis- 
trict of  Annaly. 

C4t<vo  means  a  green  flat  field  bordering  on 
a  lake  or  river.  In  Munster  it  means  a  ferry 
where  boats  land.  Callows  is  the  name  for  that 
district  in  South  Longford  bordering  the  River 
Shannon. 

Callum  ;  CAtA  tom,  bare  land. 

Cam  ;  CAtTl,  a  winding. 

From  cam  is  derived  comma  (because  it  is 
crooked),  used  in  punctuation.  Caman,  a  hurly, 
a  stick  with  a  crooked  head.  Cambutta,  a  walk- 
ing stick. 

CAMAGH  ;  CAtTl  m&£>  crooked  plain. 

This  place  is  at  the  River  Inny  in  Abbeylara 
parish. 

Camlin  (River);  CAtTl  tttte,  crooked  line.— 
O'Donovan. 

The  source  or  fountain  head  of  this  river  is  a 
well  in  Water-lane  in  Granard,  called  Uob<\ji 
Hi  h-eAt>|iA,  Mb,  O'Hara's  well.  The  water  from 
this  well  flows  southwards,  then  it  takes  a  cir- 
cuitous turn  in  the  direction  of  Ballinalee,  where, 


54 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


joined  by  other  streams,  it  swells  into  a  large 
river  known  as  the  Camlin  (recte,  Catnline),  and 
flows  on  to  the  Shannon. 

CAMLISK;   CAtT)  teiSCe,  winding  of  the  lazy 
man. — 0' Donovan. 

CAMOG ;  CAtYlOg,  little  winding. 

CARAMORE  ;  ceAtfLA  mOtl,  great  quarry. 

Caranfull;  ceAttlArhAII  AW  pm\X,  quarter 

of  the  hole. 

Carbry;  CA11H3TL6,  a  name  by  which  North 
Longford  was  formerly  known. 

Teamhfna  or,  by  Latin  writers,  Teffia,  was  the 
original  name  of  the  County  Longford,  or  at 
least  the  greater  part  of  it.  North  Teffia  was 
co-extensive  with  the  barony  of  Granard,  and  at 
least  part  of  barony  of  Longford,  and  was  divided 
from  South  Teffia  "on  the  line  of  the  present  rail- 
way from  Mullingar  to  Longford." — Dr.  Healy. 

Maine,  the  fourth  son  of  Niall  Naoi  n-Giall- 
iadh,  or  Niall  of  the  Nine  Hostages,  had  his 
dun  at  Ardagh,  and  ruled  over  South  Longford. 
Cairbre,  the  eldest  son  of  Niall,  having  married 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


55 


a  Firbolg  princess  named  Mulreany,  who,  accord- 
ing to  tradition,  owned  the  Moat  of  Granard, 
ruled  from  that  historic  spot  territory  co-exten- 
sive with  all  North  Longford.  He  also  had 
tracts  about  Lough  Erne  and  the  barony  of 
Carbury,  in  Sligo.  Cairbre  was  the  bravest  of 
the  sons  of  Niall,  Conal  Gulban  (youngest  son 
of  Niall)  excepted.  Then  the  County  Longford 
came  to  be  known  as  Upper  Conmaicne,  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  Muinntir-Eolais  or  South  Leit- 
rim,  which  was  called  Lower  Conmaicne,  because 
both  Longford  and  South  Leitrim  were  peopled 
by  the  descendants  of  Conmac,  the  son  of  Fergus 
(the  dethroned  King  of  Ulster),  by  Queen 
Meadbh  of  Connaught.  "  There  were  in  all  five 
places  known  by  the  name  Conmaicne,  viz.y 
Conmaicne-Cuile-Tola,  or  the  barony  of  Kil- 
maine  in  County  Mayo,  the  lordship  of  O'Tal- 
cairn  ;  Conmaicne-Dunmore  in  County  Galway, 
the  estate  of  O'Siodhlan;  Conmaicne-Mara  (now 
Connemara),  in  County  Galway,  the  country  of 
the  O'Ceilies,"  and  the  first  two  mentioned 
above.  In  the  nth  century  the  O'Farrells  hav- 
ing defeated  the  O'Cairbres,  called  their  territory 
Anghaile.  This  Anghaile  was  the  great-grand- 
father of  Fearghail,  from  whom  they  derived 
their  surname  in  the  tenth  century.    Lastly  the 


56 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


County  was  called  Longphort*  (now  Longford), 
which  means  (O'FarrelFs)  fortress,  the  site  of 
which  is  now  covered  by  the  Military  Barracks. 
It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  County  Longphort 
formed  part  of  Cuige  tThoe,  or  the  royal  pro- 
vince of  Meath. 

Carna  ;  CAtltl/A,  piles  of  stones  on  which  the 
Druids  light  their  solemn  fires  on  May  day. 

Carnan  ;  CxVRH AH,  a  monumental  heap  of  stones. 

Carragh  ;  G&tltlAC,  rough  land. 
Situated  in  parish  of  Abbeylara. 

CARRAEENY;    COTLtlA    6ut1t1A,  Eany's 
weir. — O"  Donovan. 

CARRABAWN  ;  CORttA  tXdtl,  white  weir. 

CARRAROE  ;  CeAtnttlAt)  TttlAt),  red  quarter. 

CARRICKADORISH ;  CAtltlAIC  A'  T)OtlA1S,  lite- 
rally rock  of  the  door. 

is  the  word  given  in  Fr.  Dinneen's  Dic- 
tionary y  but  O'Donovan  spells  Co^aic.  T)o|i<vf 

*  "  As  O'Neale  continued  quiet,  he  (Lord  Sussex)  was  enabled 
to  attend  to  the  execution  of  various  measures.  Among  the 
chief  of  these  was  the  division  of  the  reduced  districts  into 
counties.    Annaly  was  called  Long-ford." —  Ware,  ad.  an.  is6j. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


57 


moji,  hall  door;  t)Ofu*f  ctht,  back  door;  *oofwyf 
ffiAi'oe,  the  front  door.    This  place  is  in 
parish  of  Columcille. 

CARRICKATANE ;  CATttlAIC  A  C-S61I1,  rock  of 
prosperity. — (J  Donovan. 

Carrickboy;  CAtttlAIC  t)Ult>e,  yellow  rock. 
In  parish  of  Legan. 

CARRICKBEG;  CAtlft<\1C  pe&§,  little  rock. 

CARRICKDUFF  ;  CARTIA1C  t)tlt),  black  rock. 

This  place  is  in  parish  of  Abbeylara;  the 
black  rock  which  has  given  a  name  to  this  town- 
land  is  there  to  be  seen. 

CARRICKEDMOND ;   CARUA1C   SAtrioirm,  Ed- 
mond's  rock. 

"Tlaorh  SmeAC  o  a§  Since  x>o  fLiocc  tlaoi 
5iaVLm§,  i.e.,  St.  Shineach  from  Thigh  Shinche 
of  the  tribe  of  the  Nine  Hostages."  Maine, 
who  lived  at  Ardagh,  was  the  progenitor  of  the 
O'Shineachs,  or  Foxes,  O'Quinns,  O'Kiernans, 
O'Dalys,  etc.  St.  Shineach  was  probably  the 
founder -of  this  parish  (Carrickedmond),  and 
Thigh  or  Teach  Shinche  (now  Tashinny)  would 


53 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


be  a  more  suitable  name  for  it.  St.  Shineach's 
feast  falls  on  9th  November.  Teach  Shinche, 
St.  Shineach's  cell  or  church. 

CARRICKGLASS  ;  CATUIA1C  gLAS,  green  rock. 

CARRICKLEA;  U At,  grey  rock. 

Carrickmaguirk  ;  c^ntiAic  triAg  tunc, 

MagGuirk's  rock. 

tTlAg  takes  the  place  of  TTIac  when  the  surname 
begins  with  a  vowel,  f  aspirated,  1,  n,  r,  d.  This 
place  is  in  parish  of  Drumard. 

CARRICKMORAN ;  tilORAItl,  Moran's 

rock. 

The  surname  Moran  is  derived  from  m6ry 
great,  fionny  fair-haired.  Moran  then  means  great 
fair-haired. 

There  was  at  the  beginning  of  our  era  a 
famous  Irish  judge  named  Moran,  he  was  the 
son  of  Cairbre  Cinnchait.  On  the  death  of  his 
father,  Moran  was  elected  King,  but  resigned  in 
favour  of  the  royal  line  of  Milesius.*  Feradch 
Fionfactnach,  or  Feradch  the  Most  Just,  as  the 
new  King  was  called,  appointed  Moran  his  chief 


*  Milesius  is  derived  from  Mile-Espaine,  hero  of  Spain — O'HaU 
loran. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


59 


Brehon  or  Judge.  In  this  capacity  Moran  wore 
a  gold  chain  or  sin  around  his  neck ;  if  he  passed 
an  unjust  sentence  the  chain  tightened ;  if  a  true 
one  it  expanded.  To  swear  "Dar  an  Iodh 
Mhorain,"  i.e.,  by  the  collar  of  Moran,  was  a 
common  practice  up  to  a  few  hundred  years  ago. 
This  legend  is  taken  from  the  Book  of '  Bally  mote. 

CARRICKMOYRAGH;  CAHRA1C  ttlA15  TteAC,  rock 
of  the  grey  plain. 

CARRICKNAHOO ;  CAtltlAIC  tlA  ft-UAirhe,  rock 
of  the  cave. 

This  rock  is  convenient  to  the  town  of  Gran- 
ard  and  has,  as  the  name  implies,  a  cave  in  it. 
This  cave,  it  is  said,  has  underground  connection 
with  the  Moat. 

CARRICKURNA;  CAtltlAIC  eOtltlAtl,  rock  of 
barley. 

Carrigeen  ;  CAtltlAlglll,  small  rock. 

CARRASTRAWLEY ;  CeAUtlAThAt)  SCtlA01tA1§, 
straggling  quarter. 

CAR  ROGER;  CeAttlAtflAt)  tltlAltrtll,  Rory's 
quarter. 


6o 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Carrowentemple  ;  ceAtiiArhAt)  An  ueAtn- 

ptlltt,  Church  quarter. 

As  the  name  shows,  there  was  a  church  here 
(at  Granard)  from  an  early  period ;  not  the 
modern  Ueatnpult  jg&lVoA,  which  now  probably 
covers  its  site. 

CARROWBEG:  CeAtftArhAt)  tteAg,  little  quarter. 

Carrowdunican  ;  ceAttiArhAt)  *6onnCon, 

Dunican's  quarter. 

Carrowfortharla  ;  ceAttiArhAt)  ptimz:  An 

1  AtVLA,  quarter  of  the  Earl's  bank. 

Carrowlinan;  ceAtRAttiAt)  tAit>5eAnAin, 

Lynan's  quarter. 

CARROWMORE;   CeAttlAtTlAt)  TTlOtl,  large 
quarter. 

Cartron  ;  CAtlUTltin,  a  quarter  portion  of  land. 
Cartron  is  an  Anglo-Norman  term  for  land 
varying  in  quantity  from  60  to  160  acres.  In- 
quisitions taken  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  men- 
tion 80  acres  as  a  cartron.  Carucates,  having 
the  same  meaning,  was  the  term  used  in  reign 
of  Henry  VIII.  This  place  is  in  the  parish  of 
Granard. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


6l 


CARTRONBOY;  CAtiUtUltl  Dtmie  *  yellow  cartron. 

CARTRONBORE;  CAtlUtUltl  t)0UA1tl,  cartron  of 
road  lands. 

Cartron  brack;  CAtlCtltm  tDtieAC,  speckled 
cartron. 

CARTRONCAR;  CAtlOltm  tlA  CeAtVOCAtl,  car- 
tron of  the  forge. 

Ceardhchan  is  derived  from  ceard,  an  artisan, 
and  ca,  a  house,  hence  a  workshop. 

Cartronfin;  CAtlCttUtl  piorm,  fine  or  fair 
cartron. 

CARTRONGAR  ;  CAUOlUtl  5eAHll,  short  cartron. 

CARTRONGARVE ;  CAtlOlUTl  gAtlt),  rough  car- 
tron. 

CARTRONGEERAGH ;  CATlOVUtl  tlA  5-CAOUAC, 
cartron  of  the  sheep. 

CARTRONGOWLAN ;    CATlCtltin  Atl  $At5Ldlt1, 
cartron  of  the  forked  place. 

Cartronlebagh  ;   CAtlCtttJtl  teAt>t)AC, 
straggling  or  patchy  cartron. 


*  In  this  townland  is  a  cavern  with  several  chambers. — 
Lewis,  Topographical  Dictionary, 


62 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Cartronmarkey;  CAtlctitfn  A' rhARCAijg,* 
cartron  of  the  horseman. 

Marc  is  a  generic  term  for  a  horse  and  is  found 
only  in  compounds.  Marcach  (now  Markey)  is 
applied  to  a  man  having  many  horses;  marc- 
lack,  a  cavalcade:  beat  >dcA  ha  tn<\|ict<\c  (now 
Ballinamallard,  County  Fermanagh),  mouth  of 
ford  of  the  cavalcade.  Gearrdn,  a  gelding,  is 
derived  from  gear,  to  cut ;  each,  a  steed ;  each  rats, 
a  race  horse.  Capall,  derived  from  cap,  a  car, 
and  pell,  a  steed,  i.e>,  a  car-horse  or  pack-horse. 
The  Irish  formerly  rode  without  saddle  or  stir- 
rups; with  one  ech-leim  the  rider  got  on  his 
dillat  (now  diallaid),  which  was  a  sort  of  thick 
cloth. 

CARTRONREVAGH ;  GAtlCtltJtl  tt1At)AC,  grey  car- 
tron. 

Cartronwar  ;  CAttCtltftt  A'  t)A1tltl,  cartron  of 
the  high  lands. 

Cartronwillan  ;  CAticiitfti  a'  rhtnttw,  car- 
tron  of  the  mill. 
This  place  is  near  Granard. 


*  ttUjtc-Ais  is  found  in  surnames  and  is  Anglicised  Ryder. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


63 


Cashel  ;  CAISeAt,*  a  fort  built  with  uncemented 
stones,  round  the  king's  palace. 

In  the  5th  century  the  people  began  to  build 
with  mortar.  The  walls  of  the  caiseal  were  not 
as  thick  as  those  of  the  caher. 

Cashelbeg  ;  CAISeAt  t)eA5,  little  stone  fort. 

Castlebawn  ;  CA1SteAH  tX&tl,  white  castle. 

Castlebrack;  CAISteAtl  t)tieAC,  speckled 
castle. 

Castlebrock  ;  CAISteAtl  tlA  mt)ROC,  castle  of 
the  badgers. 

Castlecore;  c  a  1  s  t  e  a  11  con,  odd 

castle. — (J  Donovan. 

Castlerea  ;  CAISteAtl  tl1At)AC,  grey  castle. 

Castletown  ;  t>Aite  An  CAisteAitl. 

Castlewilder  ;   CAlSteAtl   Wilder,  Wilder 
was  the  name  of  the  former  owner. 

In  the  beginning  of  the  last  century  there 
were  petty  sessions  held  here  every  alternate 
week.  This  place  is  situated  in  parish  of  Kil- 
glass. 

♦Caiseal  also  means  an  earthen  wall  faced  with  stone. — Kuno 
Meyer. 


64 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


CAVAN  ;  CAt)At1,  a  hollow  place. 

CtJb&n  Hi  tlagAVtaig,  now  Cavan  town,  County 
Cavan ;  Cabin  c-Sile  (Cabinteely,  County  Dub- 
lin), Sheela's  hollow  place. 

Churchquarter  ;  ceAtRAttiAt)  Ati  ueAm- 
ptlltt.  This  townland  is  convenient  to  town  of 
Granard. 

CLARESS ;  CtAtlAS  (CtAtl  &ASA),  plain  of  cas- 
cade. 

Clawinch  ;  CtAlt>e  mse,  mound  of  the  inch. 

CLERAWN  ;  CtOICtieAtl,  rocky  ground. 

CLIENRAGH  ;  CtAOn-ttAU,  inclining  fort. 

This  word  inverted  becomes  U<\c-ct<xom  (Rath- 
cline). 

CLOCHAN  ;  CtOCAtl,  stony  ford. 

Ctocan  n<\  bporfiojiAc,  the  Fomorians'  Cause- 
way ;  now  the  Giants*  Causeway. 

Cloghan  ;  CtOCAtl,  same  meaning. 

Cloghas;  CtOgCAS,  a  square  belfry;  also 
CtOgAS. 

From  ctos,  a  bell,  comes  the  word  clock. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


65 


CLOGHER;  CtOCAtl,  a  stony  place;  it  also  means 
an  assembly,  college,  stone  church. 

CLOON  ;  CttlAltl,  a  lawn,  a  meadow. 

CUiAin  means  rather  a  sequestered  place.  In 
such  places  the  saints  in  the  early  ages  built 
their  churches.  Cruimther  Fraech  had  his  mona- 
stery at  Cloon,  in  County  Leitrim.  Cloonmorris, 
where  St.  Morris  (ITIuiiijif)  had  his  little  com- 
munity. St.  Ciaran  selected  Clonmacnoise;  St. 
Brendan,  Clonfert  (CluAin  £eAf\uA) ;  St.  Jarlet, 
Clonfoish.  The  two  Emers,  Clonbroney  (CtuAin 
bporiAij),  etc. 

Cloonagh  ;  cVUAItt  eAC,  meadow  of  the  horses. 
Each,  a  steed,  a  horse  of  good  quality. 

CLOONAHEE;   CtUAm   tlA  tl-OVOce,  literally, 
meadow  of  the  night, 

Oidhche  is  derived  from  ceo,  darkness,  and  oid, 
an  element.  Anocc,  a  particular  night;  ah  Anocu, 
to-night ;  An  oit>ce  'nocu,  this  very  night.  Our 
forefathers  used  to  count  time  by  the  night; 
thus  coiccigeAf ,  which  is  the  Irish  for  a  fortnight, 
literally  means  fifteen  nights.  "  Moses  was  forty 
nights  on  Mount  Sinai  without  drink  or  food." — 
Life  of  St.  Fechin.  When  they  spoke  of  a  day 
and  a  night  they  put  the  night  first  and  made 

£ 


66 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


the  day  follow  it ;  thus  oit>ce  Sattitia,  Halloweve 
night;*  oit>ce  beAtc<Mne,  May  eve;  oit>ce  tlot)- 
tag,  Christmas  eve;  oit>ce  Ue  ncotaij;,  Christ- 
mas night* 

Cloonaghmore  ;  CtUAnAC  IT! Oil,  great  meadow 
land. 

CLOONAHUSSY ;  CttlAin  A'  COSA1$e,  meadow  of 
the  footman. — 0? Donovan. 

CLOONANAGH;  CttlAltl  eAnnA1$,  meadow  of 
the  marsh. 

CLOONARD ;  CttlAin  ART),  high  meadow. 

CLOONBACK ;  CttlAin  t)A1C,  inclining  meadow. 

CLOONBALT;  CttlAin  t)AltU,  lawn  of  welt  or 
excrescence. — (J  Donovan. 

CLOONBEARLA ;  CttlAin  t)6A1ltA,  lawn  of  Eng- 
lish language. 

Bearla  is  derived  from  beul>  the  mouth,  and 
radh,  speech.  Bearla  is  now  commonly  written 
sacs-bearla. 

Cloonbo  ;  CttlAin  t)0,  meadow  of  cows. 


*  "  Dies  natales  et  mensium  et  annorum  initia  sic  observant 
ut  noctem  dies  subsequatur." — Cues,  Bell  Gall 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


67 


CLOONBREANY;  CUIAW  tmSine,  fetid  lawn; 
lawn  of  ill  odour. 

Cloonbrien  ;  CttlAHI  t)ft1A1H,  O'Brien's  lawn. 

Clonbroney;  Ct/UA1tt  t>TL0tlA15,  Bronach's 
lawn. 

"St.  Patrick  baptized  and  tonsured  Mochae, 
the  son  of  Bronach,  who  was  the  daughter  of 
Mi  Icon,  and  he  (St.  Patrick)  preached  the  new 
Gospel  of  peace  and  love  to  the  grandson  of  the 
master  who  had  held  him  so  long  in  bondage/' 
From  this  passage,  taken  from  the  writings  of 
Dr.  Healy,  it  is  clear  that  Bronach  was  the  name 
of  one  of  the  two  Emers  who  added  that  name 
to  the  cluain  on  which  they  built  their  convent. 
Hence  this  place-name  is  as  old  as  the  dawn  of 
Christianity  in  Ireland.  The  old  grave-yard 
marks  the  site  of  their  convent,  of  which  no 
trace  now  remains  ;  the  landlord  knocked  down 
the  last  remnant  of  it  many  years  ago,  to  get 
stones  to  build  a  neighbouring  bridge.  Some 
writers  think  that  this  was  the  first  convent  of 
nuns  established  in  Ireland. 

O'Halloran,  in  his  History  of  Ireland,  written 
about  1778,  states  at  page  162  that  there  was  a 
monastery  of  females  in  Ireland  before  the  com- 
ing  of  St.  Patrick  :  "  The  first  monastery  of 


68 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


females  on  record  in  Ireland  is  that  of  Kill- 
Leaden,  in  the  county  of  Carlow,  founded  by 
St.  Kieran,  before  the  arrival  of  St.  Patrick" 
There  are  many  holy  women  mentioned  in  con- 
nection with  the  convent  at  Clonbroney.  St. 
Samhthan  (pronounced  Savhan)  was  patroness  of 
Clonbroney.  In  the  Book  of  Fenagh  is  the  fol- 
lowing : — '"Otijpm  jro  t)o  SAmcuirm  x>on  nowioig, 
c&c  'oechtfiA'o  f cpepAU,  -oia  cAbecl^<M,o.', 

Of  this  piece  of  ancient  Irish,  the  following  is 
the  translation  given:  "I  (St.  Caillen  of  Fenagh) 
am  entitled  from  Samhthan,  the  holy  virgin,  to 
every  tenth  screpall  of  what  she  levies."  A 
screpall  was  equal  to  three  pinginns  and  both 
were  silver.  A  milch  cow  was  value  for  16 
screpalls.  From  this  we  see  that  money  was  in 
circulation  among  the  Irish  at  an  early  period. 
It  is  difficult  to  understand  why  Caillen  of  Fenagh 
claimed  tithes  from  the  Superioress  of  Clonbrony. 
We  know  he  claimed  every  tenth  penny  from 
Crimther  Fraech  of  Cloon,  "  and  ordered  it  to  be 
sent  to  Fenagh,"  although  much  rivalry  existed 
between  these  two  monasteries,  and  St.  Man- 
chan  of  Mohill  also  paid  him  an  annual  tribute. 
But  these  two  monasteries  were  in  Muinntir 
Eolais,  over  which  Caillen  as  Bishop  and  chief 
ecclesiastic  exercised  spiritual  jurisdiction,  where- 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


69 


as  the  monastery  of  Clonbrony  was  in  the  terri- 
tory of  Cairbre,  and  under  the  protection  of 
Bishop  Guasacht,  or  his  successor  at  Abbeylara. 
Muinntir  *  Eolais  means  the  people  of  Eolas,  who 
was  the  37th  in  descent  from  Fergus  MacRoi, 
It  was  the  name  of  all  the  territory  from  Lough 
Allen  to  Sliabh  Cairbre,  or  Cairn-hill,  in  the 
parish  of  Kiloe.  Of  all  that  country,  Fenagh 
was  the  chief  city  and  religious  centre,  and 
Caillen  who  lived  at  Fenagh  was  its  Bishop.  His 
jurisdiction  extended  over  all  that  territory  and 
therefore  to  Cairn-hill,  which  is  distant  but  a 
few  miles  from  Clonbrony.  Now,  the  monastery 
at  Clonbrony  had  eight  cartrons  of  land,  or 
about  1,000  acres,  and  perhaps  some  of  these 
acres  stretched  beyond  the  base  of  Sliabh  Cair- 
bre into  Muinntir  Eolais,  and  therefore  brought 
the  monastery  of  Clonbrony  under  an  obligation 
to  Caillen,  just  as  a  Catholic  living  in  the  parish 
of  Granard,  but  owning  land  in  Abbeylara,  would 
be  expected  to  pay  dues  to  the  priests  of  Abbey- 
lara. There  must  be  some  mistake  in  regard  to 
the  date  of  St.  Samhthan's  death  which  is  stated 
to  have  occurred  in  735,  whereas  St.  Caillen 
lived  in  the  time  of  St.  Columcille,  who  died 


*  Muinntir  also  means  the  aggregate  of  monks  in  each 
monastery. — Kuno  Meyer. 


7o 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


597.  The  monastery  of  Clonbrony  existed  till 
the  1 2th  century. 

The  following  quatrain  for  the  feast  of  St. 
Samhthain,  is  translated  from  the  Feilire  of 
St.  Aengus  by  O'Curry  : — 

"  For  my  soul  may  she  have  welcome 
With  the  immensity  of  her  hosts, 
The  beautiful  work  of  God  the  Creator's  hand, 
Samhthann  of  Cluain  Bronaigh." 

CLOONBROCK;  Ct/UAItl  t)llOC,*  meadow  of 
badgers. 

Cloonbuine;  CttlAltl  t)  tl  1 11  5  e,  meadow  of 
stream ;  also  btHtltie. 

CLOONCAHA ;  CttlAltl  CAUA,  meadow  of  battle. 

Clooncallow;  CtUAItl  C  At  A,  lawn  of  the 
callow  or  marsh. 

CLOONCAULFIELD;  CtUAW  CAttilAOlt,  Cawel's 
lawn. 

CLOONCOOSE;  CUtAM   CUAS,  meadow  of  the 
hollows. 

CLOONCOWLEY ;  CUlAltl  CAt>tA1§,  meadow  of 
the  fleet  boats  for  the  Shannon. — O' Donovan. 

*  From  bfioc,  a  badger,  comes  the  surname  Brogan. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


71 


Clooncraff  (now  Mount  Davis);  CtU&W 
CUOAtfl,  lawn  of  wild  garlic. 

CneAm,  garlic.  The  liquids  sometimes  change 
in  Irish. 

CLOONCULLEN;  CtUAW  COIteAM,  Collin's  lawn. 

Cloondra  ;  CttlAltl  X)S  tlAt,  the  pasturage  of 
the  two  forts. 

Inquisition  taken  27th  January,  37th  Eliza- 
beth, finds  here  a  Hospital,  Termon,  Irenagh, 
with  four  cartrons  of  land. 

Giolla  Airnin  O'Casey,  Great  Priest  of  CttiAm 
t)A  \\aty  died  1323. 

"  The  Coarb  of  Clondragh,  County  Longford, 
four  cartrons  value  9/6 ;  the  Coarb  of  Clon- 
broney,  eight  cartrons  value  19/6;  the  Coarb  of 
Granard,  two  cartrons  value  4/6 ;  Coarb  of  Ard- 
agh,  two  cartrons  value  4/9 ;  Ballinroddy  (in 
parish  of  Abbeylara),  County  Longford,  value  6/9, 
were  granted  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  under 
the  Queen's  letters,  27th  September,  XXXI. 
of  Elizabeth,  to  George  Isham  of  Brianstown, 
County  Wexford." — Fiants  of  Elizabeth. 

"  One  Cartron  in  Elloghan ;  Moneskalligan, 
one  and  a  quarter  cartrons ;  Eterboy,  one  car- 
tron ;  Moneerd,  one  cartron ;  Killenbea,  one 


72 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


cartron  ;  Clonmokerie,  one  cartron  in  the  County 
Longford  and  possessions  of  Monaster  Derrig,* 
alias  Monastereig  (40s.  6d.),  were  granted  to 
George  Isham,  27th  September,  XXXI.  of  Eliza- 
beth."— Fiants  of  Elizabeth^  Record  Office. 

"  Surrender  of  Feghna  O'Farrell  Boy,f  chief 
and  captain  of  his  nation,  of  the  manors  and 
lands  of  Longford,  Currigbigge,  Rathcalmen, 
Ardenragh  (now  called  Ardandra),  Clonmore, 
Clanawley,  Callows,  in  County  Longford,  with 
the  intention  of  their  being  regranted  him  30th 
November,  XXIX.  of  Elizabeth." 

The  Record  does  not  say  that  he  got  them 
back ;  I  incline  to  think  he  met  with  bitter 
disappointment.  6  peA^gail,  bui*6e,  or  O'Farrell 
the  Yellow,  held  sway  over  the  southern  portion 
of  the  County  Longford.  6  peafigAit,  b-Ati,  or 
O'Farrell  the  Fair,  ruled  the  northern  half. 

CLOONEANY;  CttlAltl  eAtttlAlt),  Enny's 
lawn. — (J  Donovan. 

CLOONEE ;  CtUAItt  AO'OA,  Hugh's  lawn. 

CLOONELLY;   CttlAltl   eAttAlg,  meadow  of 
cattle. 

This  townland  is  in  parish  of  Dromard. 

*  Now  Abbeyderg-. 

t  Boy  is  the  Anglicised  form  of  buidhe. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


73 


CLOONELLAN  ;  CUlAltl  OlLeAW,  lawn  of  island. 

CLOONEEN  ;  CttlAinTn,  little  lawn. 
Situated  in  the  parish  of  Scrabby. 

Clooneen  Beirne;  ctti-Ainin  bemn. 

Clooneen  Kennedy;  cttiAinin  cirmeiTng. 

Clooneen  Cox;  CttlAirritt  COH15. 

Clooneen  Shanly;  cVUAitriti  seAnt^oic. 

CLOONEENA;  CLUAW  eAtVneAC,  ivy  meadow. 

CLOONEVIT;  CVUAItt  eblU,  Evit's  lawn. 

CLOONFIN  ;  cUl^m  ponn,  fair  lawn. 

CLOONFINCH;    CttKMtl    pine,  bubbling 
lawn. — O  Donovan. 

CLOONFIDE;  CVUAW  pi T)e,  lawn  of  brook. 

Cloonfinny;  CttlAin  pintipit),  lawn  of  fine 
woods. 

CLOONFORE;  CtAJA1H  potKMtl,  lawn  of  spring. 

CLOONGESH  ;  CVUAW  56IS,  lawn  of  swan. 

Clongesh  had  three  cartrons  of  land,  and  was 


74 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


situated  in  the  ancient  territory  of  qieaje. 
There  was  formerly  a  church  in  Clongeish,  pro- 
bably founded  by  St.  Elither,  who  was  the 
founder  of  this  parish.  The  church  had  a  quar- 
ter of  a  cartron  of  glebe-land  attached.  St. 
Elither  passed  out  of  the  memory  of  the  people 
and  in  1837  Fr.  O'Beirne  placed  the  parish 
(now  Newtownforbes)  under  the  tutelage  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary.  St.  Elither's  feast  falls 
on  April  25th. 

CLOONGOWNA;  CttlAtll    SAttltlA,  meadow  of 
calf. 

CLOONKER ;  CtUAItt  Cem,  Ker's  meadow. 

There  was  buried  here  a  giant  whose  grave 
measures  15  feet  long,  and  the  giant's  name  was 
Cei|A,  Anglicised  Ker.  The  place  is  now  called 
Cloonker  (recte  Cluainceir). 

CLOONKEEN  ;  CttlAltl  CAOW,  fine  lawn. 

Cloonkeel  ;  CttlAltl  CAOt,  narrow  lawn. 

CLOONLARA;   CtlJAIII  tAtlAC,  meadow  of 
mare. 

CLOONLOM ;  CttlAM  tOtn,  bare  meadow. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


75 


CLOONMACART;  CUlAltl  tillC  A1ttU,  MacArt's 
lawn. 

Cloonmee  ;  CtUAItl  mit)e,  meadow  in  County 
Westmeath. — G  Donovan. 

CLOONMORE ;  CttlAltl  mOtl,  great  meadow. 

Cloonmuker;  CttlAltl  tTIOCAItl,  Mockar's 
lawn. — (J  Donovan. 

CLOONEAN  ;  CtUAItl  6At1,  birds'  lawn. 

Cloonoge  ;  CtUAItl  O5,  little  meadow. 

CLOONROLLAGH ;  cUlxVm  HA1te<\C,  meadow  of 
the  oaks. 

Omna  is  another  name  for  an  oak  and  is 
derived  from  fuaim,  sound ;  omna  is  found  in 
the  place-name  Portumna  (pope  orntiA),  on  the 
Shannon.  This  townland  is  near  the  town  of 
Longford. 

CLOONSCOTT  ;  CVUAW  SCOU,  Scot's  lawn. 

CLOONSELLAN  ;   Ct/UAItl  SA1teA1t1,  lawn  of 
willow  tree. 

CLOONSEERIN  ;  CtUAin  Sltlltl,  lawn  of  cherries. 


76 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Cloonshannagh  ;  cVuaui  siormAC,  foxes' 

meadow. 

CLOONTAGH  ;  CttlAltlueAC,  having  lawns. 

CLOONTAGHMORE ;  CttlAtlUAtTlCTIA,  great 

meadows. 

Cloontarmin  ;  CVUA111  A'  ueAtltTIAirm,  lawn 
of  sanctuary  or  glebe  land. 

For  the  non-aspiration  of  c  in  genitive  mascu- 
line see  O'Growney,  part  IV.,  page  17. 

CLOONTIRIM  ;  CVUAItt  U1Rim,  dry  lawn. 

CLOONTUMPER;    CVUAItt    U10tnCA1tl,  carriage 
lawn. 

CLOONTURK  ;  CttlAHI  C011C,  swines'  field. 

CLOONTUSKERT ;    CtUAItt    UUA1SC1RC  T1A 
SI  011  n  A,  insulated  meadow  of  the  Shannon. 

There  is  another  place  of  same  name  on  the 
River  Suck. 

Cloonwheelan  ;  CVUAW  pAOlteAtltl,  meadow 
of  the  seagulls. 

Situated   in   parish  of  Meathustruim,  now 
Edgeworthstown. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


77 


CLOUGH(or  Ballynamanagh) ;  CtOC,  a  stone. 

Clock  is  a  contraction  of  Cloch-baile-na- 
manach,  i.e.y  stony  place  of  town  of  the  monks. 
There  was  a  small  monastery  here,  a  branch 
house  of  the  monastery  in  Abbeylara.  It  had 
six  cartrons  of  land  to  maintain  it,  or  about  six 
hundred  acres.  Inquisition  taken  20th  March, 
XXX  of  Henry  VIII.,  finds  that  the  tithes  of 
corn  value  forty  shillings  were  paid  by  the  rec- 
tory of  Monkstown  to  the  monastery  of  Abbey- 
lara, in  which  parish  Cloch-baile-na-manach  is 
situated.  The  parish  of  Clough  was  founded  by 
St.  Da  Camog,  and  the  place  where  he  had  his 
church  was  called  Citt  X)&  Cam  615,  now  Angli- 
cised Kilcommock.  Very  little  is  known  about 
St.  Da  Camog.  The  holy  well  of  the  parish  is 
called  Cloughree,  or  Stone  of  the  King. 

CLOUGHERNAL  :  CtOC  C01tl1l6At,  corner  stone. 
This  place,  in  parish  of  Abbeylara,  got  its 
name  from  a  huge  stone  of  rectangular  shape,  in 
John  MacCabe's  land ;  it  was  blasted  many 
years  ago  for  building  purposes.  In  this  town- 
land  is  a  Druid's  Circle,  and  within  a  few  fields 
distant,  in  Aughnagarron,  is  a  Druid's  Altar. 
Wilde,  the  antiquarian,  took  much  interest  in 
these  ancient  remains  about  forty  years  ago. 


73 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Cluntys;  CtUAtlUA,  meadows. 

CUtanca  is  nominative  plural  of  cUiain. 

Cluntymeelan ;  cLtiAinue  til  <\oi  team, 

Moylan's  lawns. 
Clygeen  ;  cLAlt)5111,  little  fence. 

Clyghill ;  CtAOIgOItt  (Ctoc-coiU),  stony 
wood. 

Clynan  ;  CtA1*6ne^H,  small  mound. 

Colehill  ;  COtt-C01tt,  hazel  wood. 

Colehill  was  the  original  name  of  Hazelhatch, 
County  Dublin.  The  most  ancient  name  of 
Dublin  was  X)\\om  cott-coitXe,  z.e.,  Mount-hazel- 
wood.  Colehill  is  a  village  in  parish  of  Carrick- 
edmond. 

Coolamber;*  Ctft  tUMAItl,  back  of  hill  of  narrow 
channel. 

Umair,  anciently  amor,  is  probably  derived 
from  amphora,  a  vessel  made  of  clay. — Stokes. 
This  townland  is  in  parish  of  Street. 

*  In  this  townland  are  the  ruins  of  an  old  castle,  convenient 
to  which  is  an  old  cruciform  slab  on  which  we  read  :  "  Pray 
for  the  soul  of  Thomas  Nugent  and  Rose  Tyrrell  his  wife 
who  departed  this  life  1638." 


Rev.  John  C.  Drumgoole, 

Founder  of  the  Mission  of  the  Immaculate  Virgin,  for  the 
Protection  of  Homeless  and  Destitute  Children. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


79 


Coolarty;  CUt  eaCATLU'AlS,  back  of  Arty's 
hill. 

Coolaun  ;  CULdtl,  little  back. 

C00LBEG  ;  CUt  beAg,  little  back. 

COOLCAUGH  ;  CtiL  C&t&>  back  of  battle  hill. 

COOLCOR  ;  CtiL  COTl,  round  back. 

COOLCRAFF ;  Cflt  CtieATh,  back  of  hill  of  wild 
garlic. 

This  townland  is  in  the  parish  of  Abbeylara, 
and  was  formerly  a  populous  place.  All  the 
tenants — over  thirty  in  number — were  evicted 
and  their  land  turned  into  a  large  ranch.  Creamh 
is  found  in  many  place-names,  which  shows  that 
garlic  was  much  in  use  and  well-known  in 
ancient  times. 

In  Coolcraff  (Cut  Cfieani),  parish  of  Abbey- 
lara, was  born  in  the  year  1817  Fr.  Drumgoole, 
whose  work  for  the  Homeless  Child  has  gained 
for  him  the.  esteem  of  thousands,  and  made  him 
famous  the  world  over.  At  a  cost  of  ;£6o,ooo, 
all  collected  by  himself,  he  built,  in  New  York, 
U.S.  America,  a  Home  to  accommodate  twelve 


8o 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


hundred  waifs  and  strays,  who,  under  his  direc- 
tion, were  taught  by  competent  masters.  His 
Home  has  been  greatly  enlarged  and  the  Mission 
now  cares  for  over  two  thousand  homeless  and 
destitute  children.  "Father  Drumgoole  achieved 
more  in  twenty  years  than  many  a  great  society, 
with  all  its  influence  of  numbers  and  wealth,  has 
accomplished  in  a  century." — Benziger's  Home 
Almanac,  This  good  priest,  son  of  an  evicted 
tenant  and  an  Irish  exile,  died  on  28th  March, 
1888.    ptAice<xf  *Oe  50  juib  Atge.  Amen. 

Cooleeny;  CtHtltltft,  little  corners  or  back 
gardens. 

COOLEANY ;  CUt  eAtlAlg,  Heny's  corner. 

COOLNAFINOGE ;  Cfit  HA  piOllOlSe,  back  of 
the  hill  of  the  royston  crow. 

COOLNAHINCH  ;  CUt  HA  tl-HISe,  back  of  the 
inch. 

Columcille;  COttltnCltte,  church  of  St.  Colum. 
Columcille  and  Granard  are  the  only  two 
place-names  in  the  County  Longford  which,  as 
far  as  I  know,  have  retained  their  correct  Irish 
spelling.    The  parish  of  Columcille  got  its  name 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


8r 


from  the  church  on  Inch  Mor,  Lough  Gamhna, 
built  by  or  dedicated  to  St.  Columcille,  and 
called  Ueamputt  Cotum-citte,  and  its  graveyard 
tleitig  Cotum-ciUle. 

Columcille  was  the  son  of  Feilmid,  who  was 
the  grandson  of  Conal  Gulban,  who  was  the 
youngest  of  the  eight  sons  of  Niall  of  the  Nine 
Hostages.  His  great-grand-uncle  was  Cairbre, 
who  ruled  from  the  Moat  of  Granard.  His 
original  name  was  Crimthon,  but  because  of  his 
dove-like  simplicity  and  innocence  of  life  he  was 
given  the  name  Colum  (a  dove),  Cill  being  added 
because  of  the  great  number  of  churches  he 
founded.  At  the  age  of  twenty-five  he  founded 
the  monastery  called  Daire-Calgach,  or  the  oak 
of  Calgach,  and  from  this  the  City  of  Derry  got 
its  name,  London  being  prefixed  in  the  reign  of 
King  James.  In  550  he  founded  the  Monastery 
of  Dair-mhagh,  i.e.,  oak  plain,  now  Durrow  in 
the  King's  County.  In  552  he  founded  a  monas- 
tery at  Kells  ;  this  place  was  formerly  called 
CeAnArmuf  mop  tia  tTli'oe,  or  the  great  head 
abode  of  Meath  ;  hence  the  Taylor  family,  who 
have  their  seat  near  Kells,  take  the  title  Head- 
ford  in  the  Irish,  and  Kenlis  in  the  English, 
Peerage.  He  founded  also  monasteries  at  Swords. 
Raphoe,  Drumhome  and  Tory.  "  Yielding  him- 

F 


82 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


self  up  now  to  the  spirit  of  monasticism  which 
St.  Patrick  had  breathed  over  the  land,  Columba 
threw  himself  heart  and  soul  into  the  great 
work  of  founding  monasteries;  and  after  sixteen 
years  of  unwearied  labour,  no  less  than  thirty- 
seven  new  foundations  could  point  to  him  as 
their  father — no  small  share,  certainly,  in  that 
glorious  work  which  won  for  Ireland  the  enviable 
title  of  the  'Thebaid  of  the  West/" 

St.  Columcille's  monasteries  were  at  first  struc- 
tures of  very  humble  appearance.  A  church 
built  with  wood  and  oblong  in  shape,  around 
which  stood  a  number  of  cells  for  members  of 
his  community  and  students.  These  cells  were 
little  wicker  houses  covered  over  with  clay  and 
platted  over  with  ever-green  ivy.  In  time  stone 
supplanted  wood  ;  his  present  monastery  on  Inis 
mor,  Loch  Gamhna,  was  built  of  solid  masonry 
which  has  withstood  the  wind  and  the  weather  of  a 
thousand  years,  perhaps  much  longer.  We  know 
that  the  first  religious  institution  on  Inis  mor  dates 
back  almost  to  the  days  of  St.  Patrick,  but  we 
cannot  say  was  that  original  monastery  built  of 
stone.  Many  of  St.  Columcille's  monasteries 
were  built  on  the  banks  of  rivers  on  which  the 
monks  had  their  weir  and  their  watermill.  This 
monastery  was  built  on  an  island  in  a  beautiful 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


83 


lake  over  which,  no  doubt,  the  great  apostle, 
Columcille,  and  his  levites  often  fished,  an  occu- 
pation not  beneath  those  holy  souls,  who  studied 
Peter,  the  first  great  apostle,  and  ever  strove  to 
imitate  him. 

Our  Saint  was  a  poet,  who  wrote  many  pathetic 
pieces  of  poetry,  full  of  love  for  his  dear  Erinn 
and  her  monasteries.  Here  are  a  few  verses 
which  I  take  from  the  "  Three  Sorrows  of  Story- 
Telling  "  :— 

"  The  Gael,  oh !  the  Gael,  how  the  sound  of  that 
name 

When  I  speak  it  can  banish  my  ruth  and  my  rue  5 
Beloved  is  Cumin  of  faire-haired  fame, 
Beloved  are  Cainneach  and  Comgall  too." 

"  That  spot  is  dearest  on  Erin's  ground, 
For  its  peace  and  its  beauty  I  give  it  my  love ; 
Each  leaf  of  the  oaks  around  Derry  is  found 
To  be  crowded  with  angels  from  heaven  above." 

"  Beloved  are  Durrow  and  Derry  to  me, 
And  Drumhome  of  the  fruits  of  the  rich  ripe  hue, 
Beloved  Raphoe  in  its  purity, 
And  Surd*  and  Cenannas,t  I  love  them  too." 

These  lines  show  St.  Columcille's  affection  for 
his  beloved  Durrow,  Derry,  Raphoe,  etc.  The 

*  Now  Swords,  County  Dublin.       +  Irish  name  for  Kells. 


84 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


following  lines  which  I  take  from  the  Book  of 
Fenagk,  show  his  affection,  greater  perhaps,  for 
that  angelic  place,  the  home  of  St.  Caillen. 

These  are  the  days  of  the  Irish  Revival,  these 
are  the  long  hours  spent  by  thousands  of  young 
men  and  women  in  learning  the  language  of 
Ireland,  the  language  of  St.  Columcille. 

Here  is  the  language  of  St.  Columcille,  in 
which  the  Saint  pours  out  his  affection  for  his 
dear  Fenagh : — 

Cebub  fioitn  •oo  "oun  mbaiti, 
1r»AT)  uAfwL  Aingtitie, 
1  fUAjiAf  c<v6uf  ppi  cjiett, 
1c  Afvo  fenoifi  nAh-6pinn. 

{Translation.) 
I  bid  farewell  to  Dunbaili 
A  noble  angelic  place. 
Where  I  found  respect  for  a  while, 
With  the  arch-senior  of  Erinn.* 

Itinitnn  tun  1  baite  cai*o, 
Ocuf  itiTftuin  a  <\ep  gpAi*o. 
Intiitiin  tim  <\  ctoc  \  a  cftArm, 
Inriiuw  a  toe  Y  A  aborm. 


*  St.  Caillen  of  Fenagh. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


85 


Dear  to  me  is  the  holy  town, 
And  dear  its  men  in  grade. 
Dear  to  me  its  stone,  its  tree, 
Dear  its  lake  and  its  river. 


Inrhuw  bm  <\  faicci  ; 
Inrhtnn  tim  tec*  tia  n-Ainget; 
Inrhum  brn  5A6  m<vo  arm  ; 
Inrhtnn  <\  rhAj,  9f  a  penonn. 

Dear  to  me  its  bright  fair-green, 
Dear  to  me  the  Angel's  flag. 
Dear  to  me  each  spot  therein, 
Dear  its  plain  and  dear  its  land. 

5<\c  baib  t)A  fcpaciif  plA™> 

1f  cjioca  tirn  x>tm  rnbAib.f 
tlornij  po  -oibf  Conm<\icm. 

Than  any  place  I  have  ever  seen 
North  and  East,  South  and  West. 
More  choice  to  me  is  Dunbaili, 
The  Conmaicnes'  dear  burial  place. 

*  The  Angel's  flag-stone  cannot  now  be  identified, 
t  Dunbaile  was  an  ancient  name  of  Fenagh. 
t  Name  of  a  place  where  people  of  the  Roman  creed  were 
interred. 


86 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Concerning  St.  Columcille's  affection  for  Fenagh 
St.  Caillen,  Bishop  of  Fenagh  in  the  lifetime  of 
our  Saint,  writes  : — 

"tTlofi  qiA  m  onoiji  ocuf  in  Aifimicw 
Ocuf  5^A"6  •oejrni<MfA,  cug  Cotutn-cilte 
fein  Wn  baite  u<\f at  Ainglfoe  pn 

•1.  px)tiAc1iA. 

("  Great  truly  was  the  honor  and  respect  and 
excessive  love  Columcille  himself  gave  to  that 
angelic  place,  to  wit,  Fenagh.") 

— Book  of  Fenagh. 

"Columcille  uttered  the  above  composition 
on  one  occasion,  when  bidding  farewell  to  St. 
Caillen.*  We  know  from  the  old  M.SS.  that  he 
visited  the  holy  man,  Crimther  Fraech,  in  Cloon, 
County  Leitrim,  to  bid  him  the  last  farewell 
before  leaving  for  Iona. 

COMAGH;  CAtTI  triAS,  crooked  plain. 

tTI<i5  is  derived  from  mo,  greater;  aige,  its 
racing.  Maughera  is  another  term  for  a  plain, 
and  is  derived  from  magh,  and  giorra,  short,  i.e., 
a  plain  shorter  than  the  m&gh.  M&gh  is  now 
Anglicised  Moy,  v.g.,  the  Moy,  County  Tyrone, 
is  in  Irish,  An  tTlAg,  Co.  Uipe  CogAm.  M&gh 
dumha  —  Moydow,  County  Longford.  M&gh- 
bile — Moville,      plain  of  the  tree. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


87 


Cornamuckla;  COft  tlA  tntlcLAC,  hill  of  the 
piggeries. 

Cornapark;  COtl  tl-d  prince,  turn  of  the 
pasture  field. 

Gort  means  a  corn  or  tillage  field ;  ub^lX- 
gopc,  an  orchard  ;  Uib-go^c,  a  kitchen  garden. 

CORNEDAN;  COtl  Att  freA'Odltl,  pit,  well,  or 
round  hill  by  the  brook. 

Cornhill (properly  Cairn-hill);  CAtltl  ctdrm 
<\OX)&,  cairn  of  the  children  of  Hugh,  who  were 
a  sept  of  the  O'Farrells. 

It  was  originally  called  Sliabh  Cairbre.  A 
cairn  is  a  monument  of  stones  and  clay  to  mark 
the  place  where  some  warrior  was  interred. 
Owing  to  its  shape  it  was  sometimes  called 
miscaun ;  miscaun  Meadhbhe  is  the  name  of 
the  cairn  on  the  hill  of  Knocknarea,  near  Sligo. 
This  cairn  is  600  feet  in  circumference,  and 
36  feet  high.  If  it  were  built  to  commemorate 
the  famous  Queen  Meave  it  must  be  a  cenotaph, 
for  Queen  Meave  was  buried  at  Rathcroghan. 
Dumha,  found  in  the  place-name  Moydow,  means 
a  mound  or  cairn,  and  was  made  of  a  mixture  of 
clay  and  small  stones,  whereas  the  cairn  was 


88 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


made  of  large  stones.  Cairns  were  built  on 
hills,  while  the  dumha  is  found  in  low  land. 
People  killed  in  battle  were  sometimes  buried  in 
a  dumha  in  the  centre  of  which  there  was  gene- 
rally a  cist,  where  the  body  was  placed. 

CORNALLEN ;   COtl  tVAltHlfl,  beautiful  round 
hill. — 0"  Donovan. 

COROOVAL;  COll  tit)  ALL,  round  hill  of  the 
apples. 

Abhall  signifies  an  apple-tree,  but  ubhall  its 
fruit.  Apples  were  as  much  valued  formerly  as 
at  present.  On  one  occasion  "  St.  Patrick  was 
given  a  present  of  golden-yellow  apples.,, 

"But  ah !  in  the  West*  how  the  apple  is  fair; 
How  many  a  tanist;  how  many  a  king; 
How  many  a  sloe  does  the  thorn-tree  bear; 
In  the  acorned  oaks  how  the  young  birds  sing." 

— Songs  of  St.  Columcille. 

CORRACORKEA;  COtl  Ay  COtlCAlje,  round  hill 
of  the  morass. 

CoyicAc  mop  murfiAti  (now  Cork),  means  the 
great  marsh  of  Munster.  This  place  is  in  Legan 
parish. 

CORRINAGH  ;  COtl  etWieAC,  ivy  cor. 


*  In  Ireland. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


8g 


CORABAWN  ;  COtltlA  bdtl,  white  dam. 
Father  Dinneen  spells  coj\<^  a  dam. 

Corabegs;  ce&tn&ii)  &x>  be^gA,  little 

quarters. 

CORABOLA ;  COtlboLAC,  hill  of  the  cows. 
An  ancient  name. — O  Donovan. 

Coradovey  ;  COtl  <&'  TitlbUA,  pit  of  the  black 
clay  for  colouring. 

CORALAUGHA;  COH  <V  tOCA,  round  hill  of  the 
lake  or  pond. 

CORBAWN  ;  COtltlA  bdtt,  white  weir. 

CORBEG ;  COTl  bOdg,  little  round  hill. 

CORBEIGH ;  COn  beiU,  round  hill  of  the  birch 
trees. 

beiu  is  the  name  of  the  second  letter  of  the 
Irish  alphabet. 

CORBOY;  COn  btirae,  yellow  hill. 

Corclaragh  ;  COn  Ct<\nAC,  a  dike  with  plank 
across. — Q*  Donovan. 


90 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


CORDIVINE;  COtl  TMUfrin,  Devine's  round  hill. 
CORGLASS  ;  COtl  gtAS,  green  hill. 
CORLEA;  COn  tMU,  grey  round  hill. 
CORLISHEEN  ;  COnn  ttSttt,  odd  little  fort. 

Corloggan  ;  COn  A*  L^J^Itl,  round  hill  of  the 
cavity. 

Cop  has  many  meanings. 

Cormaglava;  COnn^  ttl1C  tAttld,  MacGlave's 
weir. 

Cornacallow;  con  tt<V  COlXXe&X),  pit  of  the 
grove  or  wood. 

Coitt,  genitive  coitte,  also  coitte<vd  in  Done- 
gal.— Dinneen. 

CORNADOOEY;   COn  WA  TttlbCA,  hill  of  the 
cauldron. — 0' Donovan. 

CoRNADRUNG  (in  parish  of  Columcille);  COn  WA 
t)ntliri5e,  hill  of  the  tribe  or  faction. 

Drong  has  the  same  meaning  as  the  English 
word  gang. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


91 


Cornafunshan  ;  cor  ti  a  pin  ti  rise  Arm,  round 

hill  of  the  ash  trees. 

CORNAGOLAGH;   COR  11 A  g-COlteAC,  round 
hill  of  the  wood-cocks. 

CORNAHINCH;  COtl  11 A  Tl-ttlSe,  turn  of  the 
island  or  river  bank. 

Inif  also   means  distress,  misery. — T.  Con- 
cannon. 

CORNAHOO;  COtl  tlA  h-tlAtttie,  round  hill  of 
the  cave  or  kiln. 

CORRY ;  CURRAro,  moors. 

A  townland  in  parish  of  Street. 

CRANARY ;  CRAtlAtAtg,  arborous  place. 
The  liquid  t  takes  place  of  ft, 

CRANNCAM  (now  Kilfintan);  CRAtltl  CAtH 
crooked  tree. 

Crann  dime,  sloe-tree ;  crann  beithe,  birch- 
tree  ;  crann  &dn,  sycamore-tree. 

CRANE  ;  CRAAtl,  rock  land. — (J Donovan. 
CREAGH  ;  CRtoC,  a  frontier,  a  territory. 

CRBAGHLAGHTA ;  CRtU  LeACUA,  abounding  in 
monuments. — ODonovan. 


92 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


CREENAGH  ;  CR1011AC,  withered  wood. 

Creevagh  ;  CRAOt)AC,  bushy  land. 

Creevaghmore  ;  CRAOt)AC  m6R,  great  bush 
land. 

Creevy  ;  CRAOt)AC,  same  meaning. 

Crieve  ;  CRAOt),  bush  land.    A  large  spreading 
tree. — (J  Donovan. 

CROCKAN  ;  CROC  AH,  small  hill. 

In  this  word  fi  is  substituted  for  n  ;  the  liquids 
sometimes  change  in  Irish.  Cnoodn  is  pronounced 
epoetin  in  Connaught. 

CROCKNANESK;  CROC  ttA  tl-eiSC,  hillock  of 
the  quagmire. 

Situated  near  the  River  Inny. 

CROCKROOAN  ;  CROC  Rt3At)An,  red  hillock. 

Cross  ;  CROS  *  a  cross. 

CROSSEA ;  CROS  AO*OA,  Hugh's  Cross. 
A  place  near  Mostrim. 

*"In  the  townland  of  Cross  in  Ardagh,  County  Long- 
ford, people  performed  stations  round  the  pedestal  of  a  cross. 
It  must  have  been  one  of  the  crosses  of  the  Termon  of 
Ardagh. " — O  Donovan* 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


93 


CROTT;  CtltHU,  a  hump. 

Cfttnc  also  means  a  harp ;  the  cruit  had  six 
strings  of  catgut ;  the  cldirseach  had  strings  of 
brass  wire. 

CROWCOR ;  CtlOt)  COfttl,  odd  shed.— 0" Donovan. 

CROWDRUMAN;  CUtlAt)  X)KOm  Ainu,  hard 
ridge. 

CRUCKAN  ;  CROC411  *  a  hillock. 

CRUCKANBAWN  ;  CROC^tl  X)4X\,  white  hillock. 

CRUCKROOEY;  CROC  RXIAX),  red  hill. 

CUILMORE;  Ctht,  thotl,  large  corner. 

CUINEREEN ;  CtMH1C1tleTl1,  small  rabbit 
warren. 

This  place  is  in  parish  of  Columcille. 

CULDONEY  (in  parish  of  Abbeylara);  Ctil  T)Ottl- 
11A15,  back  of  hill  of  church. — O9  Donovan. 

CULLENMORE;  COlVtftl  RIOTl,  little  wood  (big^ 
i.e.,  big  trees. 


*  Cjtoc&n,  a  crock,  by  a  figure  of  speech  called  metathesis 
becomes  coficAti,  a  pot. 


94 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


CULNAGORE;  CtlL  TiA  tl-5<dbAR,  back  of  hill 
of  the  goats. 

Culoge  ;  CUL65,  little  back. 

One  who  rides  behind  another  on  horseback. 

CULLENBOY;  COltUn  btll'Oe,  yellow  little 

wood. 

CULLENCRUBAGH ;   COlttftl   CfttibAC,  little 

wood  of  the  talons. — O*  Donovan. 

CULLENTROUGH ;  CtHteAtiri    UtlAC,  land 
abounding  in  holly. 

CULLYFODDA  ;  C01tt  fxVOA,  long  wood. 

CULNACARROW ;  COitt   WA  COftKAt),  wood  of 
the  weir. 

Culray  ;  COitt  tlglt>e,  wood  of  the  moorland. 
CURRAROE ;  COTttlAC  tltlAt),  red  moor. 

CURRAGH,  THE  ;  AW  COtltlAC,  the  marshy  place. 
This  town  land  is  in  parish  of  Abbeylara. 

CURRAGHDIVE  ;  CORRAC  Dtllt),  black  moor  near 
Clonfin,  in  parish  of  Granard, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


95 


CURRAGHMORE  ;  CORRAC  ttlOR,  large  moor. 

CURREEN  ;  CORRAlCTtt,  small  moor. 

Curry;  CURRA1t>,  low  land. 

CURRYCARROW  ;  CORA  §Atlt),  rough  weir. 

CURRYCAHILL  ;  CORRAC  CAUAlt,  Cahill's  moor; 
also  spelled  Cujijuc. 

Cathail  is  derived  from  catk,  a  battle,  and  ail, 
a  rock.    Cathail  then  means  rock  of  battle. 

CURRYGRANN  ;  CURRAC  gRAtlftA,  ugly  moor. 
5jiAnti4  is  indeclinable  ;  up-j^Anna,  very  ugly. 

Currygranny;  ctiRRAit)  ^Re^rm  Ai§e, 

gravelly  moors. — 0 'Donovan. 

Currack  originally  meant  a  race-course;  the 
Curragh  of  Kildare,  formerly  known  as  Cuirrech 
Liffe,  was  the  field  of  sports  belonging  to  the 
royal  fort  of  Dun  Aillinne,  one  of  the  palaces  of 
the  Kings  of  Leinster. 

CUSSAN  ;  CASAtl,  pathway. 


ALYSTOWN ;  t)A1te 
til  'OAtAlg  ;  p<Mftc  n<x 
CA^Aige,  or  Rockfield, 
was  the  former  name  of 
this  place. 

t)poice<vo  Hi 
or,  in  English,  Daly's 
Bridge  (now  Mount  Nugent),  was  Anglicised 
by  the  Nugents,  who  were  created  Lords  of 
Dealbhna  Mor,  now  Delvin,  in  the  end  of  the 
1 2th  century.  The  Nugents  got  possessions  in 
Longford  and  Cavan  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth, 

DAROGE  ;  TX&HO5,  where  young  oaks  grow. 

There  are  three  diminutive  terminations  in 
Irish:  in,  -dn,  65;  the  two  latter  have  nearly  lost 
their  diminutive  force. 

96 


PLACE-NAMES. 


97 


Deanscurragh  ;  ctniftAC  a'  T>eini5. 

The  article  is  used  before  surnames  in  Irish 
when  not  preceded  by  a  Christian  name. — Chris- 
tian Brother sy  Grammar,  p.  193. 

Deerpark  ;  pA1RC  HA  ttpiAt),  park  or  field  of 
the  deer, 

Dermot's  Church;  ueAtnputt  'oiAtirriA'OA, 
St.  Diarmaid's  Church  on  Inis  Clothrann  in 
Loch  Ribh  (Ree). 

Diarmaid  is  derived  from  diy  a  privative 
particle,  and  airmit,  injunction,  i.e.s  there  is  no 
injunction  on  him. — Cor.  Glossy  or  from  X)ia, 
God,  and  armaid,  arms. — O'Hart.  Jeremiah 
and  Darby  are  Anglicised  forms  of  Diarmaid. 
Darby  is  common  in  Limerick  ;  Jeremiah,  in 
Kerry.  St.  Diarmaid,  patron  of  Inis  Clothrann, 
lived  about  540;  he  was  descended  from  Dathy, 
King  of  Ireland,  who  was  killed  in  427.  His 
mother — "the  mother  of  many  saints" — was 
grand-daughter  of  Dubtach,  King  Laoghaire's 
chief  poet,  who  received  St.  Patrick  when  he 
preached  at  Tara.  One  of  St.  Diarmaid's  pupils 
was  St.  Ciaran,  who  founded  Clonmacnoise, 
and  from  this  it  is  clear  that  the  church  of  Inis 
Clothrann  is  older  than  those  of  Clonmacnoise. 

G 


98 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


St.  Diarmaid's  church  measures  only  eight  feet 
by  seven ;  it  is  considered  one  of  the  smallest 
churches  in  Ireland,  and  is  the  oldest  on  the 
island. 

Derryart  ;  T)Ome  AtlU,  Art' s  oak. 

Derragh  ;  T)01tie  eAC,  wood  of  the  horses. 

DERRYADD  ;  T)01tie  pADA,  long  wood. 

C? Donovan  makes  t)oipe  feminine,  and,  there- 
fore f  is  aspirated. 

DERRYARD  ;  T)Ome  high  wood. 

DERRYARROW  ;  t)Ome  COttAt),  wood  of  weir. 

DERAWLEY  ;  Dome  AThtAOIt),  Auliff's  oak. 
The  oak  was  considered  the  first  of  trees  and 
its  bark  was  used  for  tanning  purposes.  If  any- 
one injured  the  bark  of  another  man's  oak,  a 
fine  was  inflicted,  and  the  injury  should  be 
repaired  with  an  application  of  plaster  made  of 
cows'  droppings  and  sweet  milk.  If  he  took  as 
much  bark  from  his  neighbour's  oaks  as  would 
tan  a  cowhide,  he  should  compensate  the  injured 
man  with  a  pair  of  boots.— Joyce, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


99 


Derrybeagh  ;  T)01tie  t>eite,  wood  of  birch. 
Derrybeg  ;  T)011ie  tteAg,  little  oak  wood. 

DERRYBLISK  ;  t)Ome  t)t01SCe,  noisy  wood. 

From  btoifc  comes  the  word  bluster,  to  make 
noise,  to  bully. 

DERRYCARN  ;  T)Ome  CAtttl,  literally,  oak  wood 
of  mounds. 

DERRYCASSAN;  T)01tie  CASAItl,  path 
through  derry,  or  T)01tie  AH  CASA1H,  Cassan's 
wood. — (J  Donovan. 

DERRYDARAGH  ;  T)01tie  ^AtlAC,  oak  grove. 

DERRYDIFF ;  T)01He  AH  'OAlril,  wood  of  the  ox. 

Derryeagh  ;  T)ome  eAC,  wood  of  the  horses. 

DERRYGARIFF  ;  T)01tie  jAUt),  rough  derry. 

DERRYGEEL;  T)01tie  5Aet)eAt,  Irishman's 
wood — 0'  Donovan. 

We  are  called  Gaels  from  Gaoidh-glas,  who  was 
the  son  of  Niul,  who  was  the  son  of  Gadel,  who 


100 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


was  associated  with  Phaenius  Forsaidh,  or  the 
Sage,  in  the  invention  of  letters.  "  From  Phaenius 
a  branch  of  our  tongue  is  yet  called  Bearia 
Phaeni,  or  the  language  of  Phaenius ;  but  it  is 
more  generally  named  Gaoidhealag,  or  (as  pro- 
nounced) Gailag,  from  the  above  Gadel." — O'Hal- 
loran. 

"Dr.  Creagh,  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  who 
was  confined  for  his  religion  in  the  Tower  of 
London,  where  he  died,  A.D.  1587,  in  his  Irish 
Grammar  affirms  cthat  the  Irish  language  was 
the  only  one  spoke  by  the  natives  from  the 
coming  of  Partholan,  three  hundred  years  after 
the  flood,  to  this  day.'" — OHalloran. 

Derryglosh;  t)oitie  gUvise,  wood  of  the 
streamlet. 

DERRYGOWNA;  *001tie  5AtilHA,  wood  of  the 
calf. 

5<xrhAiTi,  derived  from  Gam,  November,  means 
a  year-old  calf  at  November. 

DERRYHARROW;  T)01Re  CAIlt),  wood  of 
bulls. — O'Donovan. 

Derryhanmore  ;   T)011ie  AtAW  tnOR,  under 
wood  (big). 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


IOI 


Derryheelan;  T)01tie  C&Ot&in,  Keelan's 
wood. 

Derryholm;  T)01lie    COItm,  Colm's 
wood. — CP  Donovan. 

DERRYLAHAN  :  t)01tie  teAtAtl,  broad  wood. 

Derrylaugher  ;  T)Ome  CtO&AItt,  stony  wood. 
Clock  means  a  detached  rock. 

DERRYLIAGH  ;  T)011ie  tlAt,  grey  wood. 

DERRYLOUGH;  T)  01  tie  IOC 4,  wood  of  the 
lake. — G  Donovan. 

Derrymacar;  1301fie  IT11C  ceAKA,  MacCarr's 
oak  wood. 

Derrymany  ;  T)01tie  tn<Mfl>A15,  oak  wood  of 
monk. 

Manach,  a  monk,  is  derived  from  mo  (old 
Irish),  a  person,  and  aonacky  alone. — Bourke. 
Manack,  from  the  Latin  monachus. — Cor.  Gloss. 

DERRYMORE;  ID 01  tie  tfl OR,  great  wood. 


102 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Derrynabuntel  ;  T) 01  tie  riA  bpomue^t, 

Payntle's  wood. — O  Donovan. 

Derrynaclough  ;  1301116  tlA  Ctoice,  wood 
of  the  stone. 

Derrynacreagh  ;  x)ome  n-A  ctioice,  wood 

of  the  cross. 

DERRYNACRIT;  t)Ome  11 A  CRtHU,  wood  of  the 
humps  or  eminences. 

Derrynacunagh  ;  T)ome  wa  cornice,  wood 

of  the  rabbits. 

derrynagease  ;  t)ome  x\a  geise,  wood  of 

the  swan. 

This  townland  is  on  the  shores  of  Loch 
Ribh  (Ree). 

Derrynagoliagh ;  T)oirte  riA  gcoiteAC, 

derry  of  the  wood-cocks. 

The  article  eclipses  the  initial  consonant  of 
a  noun  in  the  genitive  plural  (both  genders), 
and  c  is  eclipsed  by  5. — Christian  Brothers' 
Grammar. 

Derrynagrann  ;  t)ome  114  gctiArm,  oak 

wood  of  the  trees. — 0" Donovan, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


103 


derrynameehan  ;  T)oittin  tn  rhiAXMCAiri, 

O'Meehan's  wood. 

DERRYNAMODDY ;  T)01tie  tTA  tTIA'OAIT),  dogs' 
wood. 

DERRYNASKEA;  TDOItie  11 A  SCe^C,  wood  of 
the  thickets  or  white  thorn. 

Derrynavogy;  T)011flfn  A'toOgAlj*  little  wood 
of  the  quagmire. 

Derryneal  ;  DOIRe  neitt,  O'Neill's  wood. 

Derryoughill  ;  T)01tie  eoCAItt,  wood  of  yew 
tree. 

Derryshanoge;  T)ome-AtA-seA5Ain  O15, 

wood  of  ford  of  young  John. — (J  Donovan. 

DERRYWEELAN  ;   T)01tie  pAOlteAtltl,  wood  of 
the  sea-gulls. 

CfGrowney's  part  ln  page  63,  shows  the  w 
sound  in  p  AoiLeArm.  Oy  Donovan's  etymology — 
*Ooi|Ae  til  401  tain,  ue.f  Moylan's  oak  wood,  is,  I 

*  In  the  parish  of  Scrabby  (ScjieAbAc,  rough  land),  County 
Cavan,  is  a  place  called  Derrynaferst  COoifte  ha  peijifue), 
which  means  oak  wood  of  the  ford,  fre^f  at>,  the  nominative 
of  |?ei|tfre,  means  also  a  passage  across  the  strand  at  low 
water.    t)e-At  peifvpce  (now  Belfast),  mouth  of  ford. 


104 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


think,  not  correct.  This  place  is  on  the  shores 
of  Lough  Gowna,  where  sea-gulls  are  always  to 
be  seen  in  large  numbers,  flying  about,  and  hence 
I  give  the  first  explanation  as  the  correct  one. 
1f  iomt)A  fAoiteArm  seat,,  '^tif  An  t<\  irroiu,  te 
feicfinc.<yg  yri&m  aji  An  tiifce,  no  a^  eiceAttAij 
o  cfiAnn  50  cjwm  m  fAn  aic  6eAf  £oU,Ain.  Clon- 
wheelan,  in  County  Longford,  is  an  example  of 
a  similar  formation. 

DOONACURRY;  A'  CtltlAlt),  fort  of  the 

hero. 

DOOROCK  ;  T)tlt)tlAC,  black  rock. 
DOORY ;  T)tlt)tlA1$e,  black  land. 

DRINAGH;  TUlOlgtieAC,  abounding  111  black- 
thorn. 

Drinan  ;  T)R015neA11,  same  meaning. 

Cnoc  ah  *ofioi<5neAin  (Johnston's  Bridge,  County 
Leitrim),  hill  of  the  blackthorn. 

Dring  ;  'OTttUng,  a  tribe,  a  faction. 

DRUMANURE ;  X)tltlim  All  1Ut)A1tl,  ridge  of  the 
yew  tree. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


DRUMARD  ;  T)tltntr)  AtVO,  high  ridge. 

DRUM  bad;  T)tltl1tn  t>A1T),  ridge  of  long 
hill. — 0' Donovan. 

Drumbawn  ;  T)tltlim  t>A11,  white  ridge. 

Aw  y eafi  ban  (Ferbane,  King's  County),  the 
white  grass  or  lea. 

DRUMDERG ;  T)Tttlim  T)6Aft5,  red  ridge. 

Druimdearg  is  the  ancient  name  of  Drumcliff, 
in  the  barony  of  Carbury,  County  Sligo. 

DRUMEEL ;  T)tUlim  ttlAOt,  bare  ridge. 

Drumeen  ;  T)tltlimin,  little  ridge. 

Father  Dinneen  gives  T)fiom,  meaning  ridge. 

DRUMHALDRY;  T)lltlim   CAttlA1§e,  Calry's 
ridge. 

Druming  ;  T)tltlim  ing,  Ing's  ridge.— Cf  Donovan. 

DRUMLISH  ;  T)Rtl1tn  t1S,  ridge  of  fort. 

In  modern  Irish  the  genitive  of  tiof  is  te<\p\; 
*Ofiom  teif,  sheltered  hill  side. 

Drumlohera;  T)Rtlim  ttlACtlAC,  ridge  of 
rushes. 

Drummon  ;  'ORtimAinri,  extended  ridge. 


io6 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


DRUMMURY;  'Otttnm  lUtmAlge,  ridge  of  yew 
tree. 

DRUMNACOOHA;  Wttlim  tl-A  Ctl^ice,  ridge  of 
the  cuckoo. 

e<xnt<MC  ftKMfic  aj;  ceiteAbAji  Ann, 
'SAn  cuac  50  ceoVbmn  Ann  5A6  ajvo." 
"Pleasant  birds  were  warbling  there, 
And  the  sweet  toned  cuckoo  on  every  side." 

— Ossianic  Poem*. 
The  cuckoo  is  a  bird  of  migratory  habits ;  she 
returns  to  this  country  in  Spring.  Her  tuneful 
note  is  heard  earlier  in  the  barony  of  Middle- 
third,  County  Tipperary,  than  in  other  parts  of 
Ireland.  The  female  cuckoo  does  not  build  her 
own  nest,  but  lays  her  eggs  in  the  nest  of  the 
xjtAfoj;,  or  water  wag-tail. — Transacts,  of  Gaelic 
Society. 

Drumnacorra;  Tttitntn  n<\  cotirt<y6,  ridge  of 

the  weir. 

DRUMNACHREER;*  T)tltlim    ViA  CtllAUATL, 
back  of  the  sieves. 

People  are  Anglicising  this  place-name  very 
much. 

*  One  mile  north-west  of  Sheemore,  in  parish  of  Kiltog-hert, 
County  Leitrim,  is  a  townland  called  Sheffield,  i.e.,  sieve  field 
(s  slender  pronounced  sh\  which  is  the  translation  of  CaoIo- 
541-6  CftiAtAfi,  its  original  name. — O*  Donovan. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


107 


Drumnahara;  *OTUnm  HA  tl-6AtltlAt>,  ridge 
of  the  wares. 

DRUMNACROSS;  T)tUnm  11A  CROISe,  ridge  of 
the  cross. 

DRUMNEE  ;  T)tUlim  nigte,  washing  ridge. 

This  place  is  to  the  north  of  Saints'  Island,  in 
Loch  Ribh  (Ree). 

Drumroe;  T>tltnm  ttUA'O,  red  ridge. 

T>]itMm  *6a  eiciA|i  (now  Dromahair,  County 
Leitrim),  ridge  of  the  two  demons,  also  called 
Bally  O'Rorke,  because  6  tluaijic  built  his  best 
castle  there,  on  the  banks  of  the  Bonet  (buAnaic, 
M.s  ever-flowing)  river,  close  by  the  "Valley 
lay  smiling  before  me." 

DRUMURE;  T)TUIim  1tltM1tl,  ridge  of  the  yew 
tree. 

DRUMSALAGH  ;  T)RUim  SAlteAC,  ridge  of  the 
willow  trees. 

Dunamerin;  t)un       rne^tt^c^ri,  fort  of 

the  foxglove. 

DUNBEGGAN;  T)l3in  be^J^HI,  Beggan's  fort. 
The  Catholic  Church  of  Dunbeggan  is  built 
on  Beggan's  fort. 


io8 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


DUNPHILIP  ;  T)Un  pitlb,  Philip's  fort. 

In  the  belfry  of  Dunbeggan  Chapel  is  a  very 
ancient  bell;  it  originally  belonged  toCeAmpuU, 
CottiTnciVte,  or  St.  Columcille's  Monastery,  on 
Inch  Mor,  Lough  Gowna.  After  the  dissolution 
of  this  monastery,  about  1 540,  the  bell  was  taken 
away  by  the  Protestants,  but  it  was  brought  back, 
or,  as  the  people  of  the  parish  of  Columcille 
say,  "  it  came  back."  Again  it  was  taken  away, 
and  the  tongue  taken  out  of  it,  but  again  it 
was  brought  back.  Fearing  it  would  disappear 
again,  Peter  Mulligan  and  Julia  Sullivan,  his 
wife,  who  lived  on  the  island,  rolled  it  up  in  a 
piece  of  frieze,  seven  yards  long,  they  say,  and 
buried  it  deep  in  the  ground,  where  it  lay  con- 
cealed till  the  days  of  persecution  had  passed 
away.  About  sixty  years  ago  one  of  the  Mul- 
ligans, Tom,  on  his  death  bed,  told  Father 
Monahan,  the  then  curate  of  Columcille,  where 
the  bell  lay  concealed.  He,  with  some  diggers, 
at  once  repaired  to  the  spot  and  immediately 
unearthed  it;  then  arose  a  sharp  contention 
between  the  people  of  the  two  divisions  of  the 
parish  as  to  the  ownership  of  the  bell,  but 
the  Parish  Priest  settled  the  dispute  by  placing 
it  in  the  belfry  of  Dunbeggan  Chapel. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


109 


The  following  is  a  fac-simile  of  an  inscription 
found  on  this  very  ancient  bell : — 

T>m*  RlSCQROJQy. 

To  interpret  this  ancient  inscription  a  Mr.  Coyle, 
who  was  then  reputed  the  best  Irish  scholar  in 
the  neighbourhood,  was  sent  for.  This  is  his 
translation: — "Chief  Church  of  the  travelling 
teacher  or  missioner." 


DANMORE;  e#0&1)  tTIOR, 
great  brow  of  hill ;  e<vo<\n  also 
means  the  forehead. 

In  Corraac's  Gloss.  e<vo<\n  is 
derived  from  the  old  Irish  6 
dind;  "e  dind  in  chind?  the 
shelter  of  the  head. 

EDANBAWN  ;  eATWI  t)At1,  white  brow  of  hill. 

Edera  ;  O£T)01lfcA,  central  place. 

e-<voo}\CA  is  a  prepositional  pronoun,  and  lite- 
rally means  between  them ;  also  e<vof\<\. 

Ederland  ;  eiX)m  Olte^n,  isolated  land. 

Edgeworthstown  or  Mostrim;  rna&ttis 
utunm  Cotitmn). 

In  this  place-name  c  takes  the  place  of  t> ;  the 

same  occurs  in  the  word  Leitrim :  t,iac  cjitnm,  grey 

ridge.    Meathustruim  means  the  fertile  ridge, 
no 


PLACE-NAMES. 


Ill 


Enaghan  ;  OAtlACAtl,  marshy  land. 
ENNY3EGS;  eAtlAlg  DeAJA,  little  marshes. 

Ernehead;  ceAnn  etitiA. 

Lough  Erne  is  supposed  to  have  got  its  name 
from  Erna,  one  of  Queen  Meadhbh's  attendants, 
who  was  drowned  there.  The  more  ancient 
name  of  the  lake  and  river  was  Samhaoir.  Par- 
tholan  was  one  of  the  first  inhabitants  of  this 
country;  he  landed  on  an  island  below  the 
waterfall  (Assaroe)  at  Ballyshannon.  Here,  in 
a  fit  of  jealousy  with  his  wife,  he  killed  her 
faithful  hound,  called  Samhaoir,  and  the  island, 
the  River  Erne  and  Lough  Erne  were  for  ages 
afterwards  known  by  the  name  Samhaoir,  and 
the  waterfall  at  Ballyshannon  was  called  An 
c-SArhAoip.  Afterwards  it  came  to  be  known  by 
the  name  Assaroe,  or,  in  Irish,  6<xf  Ao*6  tluAi'd, 
z.e.y  Red  Hugh's  waterfall.  This  Hugh  was 
King  of  Ireland  and  was  drowned  here  in  the 
River  Erne : — 

"  Or  where  the  sunny  waters  fall 
At  Assaroe,  near  Erna's  shore." 

Another  explanation  is  that  in  the  reign  of 
Fiachadh,  a  descendant  of  Tighernmas,  the 


112 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


idolater,  Loch  Erne  burst  forth  and  submerged 
a  large  tract  of  land,  the  property  of  the 
Ernians,  who  were  of  the  Firbolgic  tribe,  and 
from  them  it  took  the  name  Erne.  O'Donovan, 
who  travelled  through  County  Longford,  in 
connection  with  the  Ordnance  Survey,  in  1837, 
states  in  his  MSS.  that  the  lord  of  the  soil 
intended  to  change  the  name  Loch  Gamhna  to 
Erne  Head  Lake.  The  landlord's  able  coad- 
jutor in  this  matter  was  Parson  Dopping,  wTho 
called  his  place  (near  the  lake)  "Erne  Head."* 
But  the  parson  is  gone,  and  the  power  of  the 
landlord  is  gone,  and  Loch  Gamhna  remains 
Loch  Gamhna. 

ESK  ;  eiSC,  a  quagmire. 

ESKIR  ;  eiSCItl,  a  ridge  of  mounds  or  sand-hills. 
Conn  the  Hundred-Fighter,  in  the  first  cen- 
tury of  the  Christian  era,  became  engaged  in  a 
great  war  with  Eoghan  Mor,  King  of  Munster. 
By  the  advice  of  friends  the  two  Kings  came 
to  a  compromise  and  agreed  to  divide  Ireland 
between  them,  the  northern  half  to  be  called 

*  The  reason  for  the  proposed  change  would  be  that  there 
is  a  winding  river  connecting  the  two  lakes,  and  that,  there- 
fore, as  the  waters  of  Loch  Erne  come  from  Loch  Gowna,  the 
latter  is  the  source  or  fountain-head  of  the  former. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


113 


Leath  Cuin,  or  Con's  Half,  and  the  southern 
portion  Leath  Mogha,  or  Eoghan's  Half.  For 
a  dividing  line  they  fixed  on  a  natural  ridge  of 
low  hills  extending  from  baite-Aca-cliac,  or 
Dublin,  to  Galway  Bay,  and  this  ridge  they 
called  Eiscir-Riada. 


man  going  to  the  lis  had  to  cross  the  rath. 
Outside  the  rath,  and  at  some  distance  from  it, 
was  the  sonnach,  which  consisted  of  a  fence  of 
strong  stakes ;  beyond  the  sonnach  was  a  com- 
mons open  to  all,  called  the  f  <vicce.  The  fahey 
extended  as  far  as  the  crowing  of  a  cock  could 
be  heard,  or  the  sound  of  a  small  bell;  tech- 
nically it  meant  the  four  fields  nearest  the 
house. — 0 'Donovan.  Sheep  were  generally  kept 
grazing  on  the  faithche)  if  a  swarm  of  bees  were 
found  on  it,  the  three-fourths  of  the  honey 
belonged  to  the  owner  of  the  faithche.  On  the 
faithche  outside  a  brewy  or  public  hostel,  burned 
114 


PLACE-NAMES. 


"5 


a  light  at  night,  to  show  people  the  way  to  the 
brewy. 

Fallan  River;  At)Airm  ha  £AttAinne, 
river  of  the  cloak. — 0' Donovan. 

Fallainn  is  derived  from  fail,  a  circle,  because 
the  cloak  goes  round  the  body;  the fullainn  was  a 
loose  cloak  coming  to  the  knees ;  lummon  is  a  name 
for  a  cloak  of  coarse  material.  On  the  banks  of 
the  Shannon,  where  now  is  the  city  of  Limerick 
were  men  standing  when  suddenly  the  tide 
rose  and  swept  away  their  lummons,  and  from 
this  the  city  and  county  of  Limerick  get  their 
name. — Dinnsenchus.  In  the  old  MSS.  the  gar- 
ment worn  by  our  Lord  was  called  a  matal. 
Cuculainn  is  described  as  wearing  a  cloak  or 
brat  of  bluish  crimson,  trimmed  with  silver  of  the 
purest  white. 

Fallan  Bridge  ;  T)ROiCeAT)  ti A  pAtUvirme. 

Up  to  the  1 2th  century  bridges  were  made  of 
wood,  hence  the  derivation  given  of  droichead  is 
droc,  bad,  and  shet,  a  road,  i.e.,  a  bad  or  dangerous 
road  compared  to  a  road  made  on  dry  land. 
*OpoiceA,o-ACA,  bridge  of  the  ford,  i.e.,  the  Boyne,* 
now  Drogheda,  County  Louth. 

*  The  fairy  precinct,  Trinity  Well,  burst  forth  in  pursuit  of 
the  goddess  Boand,  who  had  insulted  it,  and  the  river  which 
its  waters  formed  is  now  called  the  Boyne,  derived  from 
Boinde,  the  genitive  of  Boand. — Rhys,  from  the  Book  of  Lcinster. 


Il6  PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 

Fardromin  ;  peAtl  T)tltimAn,  grassy  ridge. 
FARMULLAGH  ;  pAtltntlttAC,  top  of  summit. 
FARNA ;  peAtttlAC,  abounding  in  alder  trees. 

FARRANAHILL;  peAtlAlHI  HA  Cltte,  church 
land. 

Farranyoogan  ;   peAtiArm  ui  ftuttASAin, 

O'Duggan's  land. 
FARRAGHROE  ;  pAtltlAC  tltSAt),  red  hill. 

FOSTRA  ;  £ASUtlAC,  a  wilderness. 

FERMOYLE  ;  pAtltTIAOlt,  round  hill. 

Fermoyle  O'Farrell  ;  pAtltttAOIt  ttf  f  eAtl- 
$Alt,  O'FarreH's  round  hill. 

6  peA^gait  was  written  6  Pfigit  in  Tir- 
chonaill,  and  is  now  Anglicised  Freel  without 
the  prefix  6. — O'Donovan.  The  6  Domhnaill 
of  Tirchonaill  was  inaugurated  by  Freel, 
OFearghail.  The  inaugurator  was  given  the 
rich  dress  worn  for  the  first  time  by  the  new 
king ;  his  charger,  also,  with  all  his  trappings. 

FERRAFAD ;  pgAtlAC  pAT)A,  long  pastures. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


117 


FERSKEL  ;  A  t)£eiTLSCltt,  grassy  field. 

Part  of  this  townland  is  now  Anglicised  Moss- 
vale  ;  it  is  in  parish  of  Granard. 

FlENRAGH  ;  potltlAtrttAC,  fair  hill. 

FlHORAGH  ;  £A1UCOtlAC,  plain  of  grey  colour. 

FlHOGES  ;  ttA  pAlteCgAI'Oe,  little  green  lawns. 
This  is  the  diminutive  of faithche. 

FINNS,  The  ;  ttA  piOttttA,  white  lands. 

FlSHERSTOWN;  t)Alte  AH  UUAItl,  town  of 
bleaching. 

There  was  formerly  a  bleach  mill  here. 

FORAUN  ;  £t!AtlA11,  cold  spring. 
Derived  from  fUAfi,  cold. 

FORGNEY ;  piOtlgtlAlt),  an  edifice. 

St.  Munis,  brother  of  St.  Mel,  of  Ardagh,  and  of 
St.  Rioc,  of  Inchboffin,  was  Bishop  of  Forgney. 
"There  is  a  good  station  down  below  there," 
said  St.  Patrick,  pointing  out  Forgney  to  St 
Munis.  It  was  St.  Patrick's  opinion  that  there 
would  be  more  souls  going  to  heaven  from 
St.  Munis'  church  at  Forgney  than  if  he  were  to 
set  up,  as  it  appears  he  wished,  "on  the  high 


n8 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


hill  yonder,"  perhaps  Bri  Leith,  near  Ardagh. 
"  The  lake  near  it — Forgney,"  said  Munis,  11  will 
be  troublesome ;  I  shall  have  no  peace  there ;  the 
warriors  passing  there  with  their  shouts  and 
their  tumult,  will  leave  no  life  in  me."  It  would 
seem  there  was  a  much  frequented  pass  across 
the  river  at  Forgney;  and  the  "lake"  was  a 
watering  place,  and,  perhaps,  a  camping  place 
for  the  hosts  of  Meath.*  Thereupon  Patrick 
removed  the  difficulty  by  his  prayers.  "The 
lake  of  Forgney  disappeared,  and  it  is  now 
Loch  Croni,  in  Hy-Many." — Dr.  Healy. 

St.  Munis'  feast  falls  on  18th  December,  but 
he  is  now  no  longer  remembered.  The  ruins  of 
the  old  church  stand  in  the  townland  of  Forgney. 
The  holy  well  there,  strange  to  say,  bears  the 
name  of  St.  Patrick — not  St.  Munis. — G  Donovan. 

FORTHILL ;  pUACtlAlVL— 0' Donovan. 

FOXHALL  ;f  tlAU  tUAtXAC,  grey  fort. 

The  O'Farrells  had  a  castle  here.  According 
to  O'Donovan  St.  Eiche,  who  was  sister  of  St. 

*  "  Ancient  Meath  extended  from  the  River  Shannon  to  the 
sea." —  0'  Donovan. 

f  The  remains  of  an  ancient  and  handsome  church  can  still 
be  seen  in  the  private  grounds  of  the  Fox  family,  who  are  now 
the  local  landlords.  This  family  changed  its  Irish  name  at 
the  time  of  the  so-called  Reformation. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


Mel,  and  whose  church  stood  in  the  townland  of 
Kilglass — Citt  meaning  church — was  patroness 
of  Rathriabhach.  Her  feast  is  honoured  on 
5th  August.    Kilglass  is  in  the  parish  of  Legan. 

Foyagh  ;  pxMUCe,  exercise  ground. 

Fraughan;  pUAOCAtl,   whortle-berry  or  bil- 
berry. 

The  Danes  brewed  a  kind  of  beer  from  the 
whortle-berry. 

Freehalwan;  pRAOC   CotmAItt,  Colman's 
heath. 

"  Cluain  Fraoich,  near  Strokestown,  in  County 
Roscommon,  was  the  name  of  the  palace  of  the 
O'Conor  family,  kings  of  Connacht  down  to  the 
16th  century." — Oy  Curry. 

Freaghmeen  ;  ptiAOC  mill,  small  heath. 

Freaghnamoddy  ;  ptlAOC  114  1T1AT)At>,  dog- 
heath. 

This  place  is  now  known  by  the  fancy  name 
Chancery,  and  is  in  the  parish  of  Street. 


ALID;  gAttAVO,  a  standing 
stone,  a  pillar-stone. 

These  stones  were  so  called 
because  they  were  erected 
by  the  Gauls.  It  is  said  that 
an  old  Gaul  named  Failbe  was  the  first  to  set 
up  pillar-stones  as  boundary  marks  in  ancient 
Erinn.  They  were  erected  also  over  the  graves 
of  pagans,  and  used  to  mark  the  boundary  of 
glebe  lands.  There  was  a  skirmish  here  in  1798, 
Galid  contains  two  cartrons  of  land,  or  about 
200  acres,  and  formed  part  of  the  manor  of 
Granard,  upon  which  Malby,  in  the  reign  of 
Elizabeth,  laid  a  tribute  of  120  beeves.  Legann 
is  another  name  for  a  pillar-stone. 

Garrandrew  ;  gAtlftAI'Oe  AltTOtllti,  Andrew's 
garden. 

120 


PLACE-NAMES. 


121 


GARRANBOY ;  5AtlttAt1  tDtnfte,  yellow  copse. 

Garrycam;  5AtiriA1,oe  CAttl,  crooked  garden 
or  potatoe  field. 

Garryconnell  ;  SAfttmA  COtlAItt,  Connell's 
garden. 

GARRYNAGH;  5AtlttAlt>e  tV  eAC,  field  of  the 
horses. 

Oac  means  a  horse  of  good  quality,  a  steed ; 
etc  fiAif,  a  race-horse. 

GARVAGH  ;  5Atlt)  ACAt),  rough  field  or  plain. 
Ac<v6  generally  occurs  as  a  prefix. 

Garvary  ;  JARt)  A1R6,  rough  land. 

The  River  Goronne  is  said  to  be  derived  from 
5<x]Vb,  rough,  and  Ab<\irm,  a  river,  z.e.y  rough  river. 

Garrowhill  ;  JARt)  C01tt,  rough  wood. 

Gelshagh  ;   5AlttS6AC,  an  earwig  or  black 
insect. — 0"  Donovan. 

Gelshagh,  Molly,  and  the  other  high  lands 
to  the  north  of  the  barony  of  Granard  were 
formerly  called  Sliabh-Cairbre. 

Gaige  ;  56A5  or  56115,  a  branchy  place. 


122 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


GLACK  ;  5tA1C,  a  hollow  place 
Glanboy  ;  SteAtin  t)tllt)e,  yellow  glen. 
Glen  ;  gteAnn,  a  valley. 

Glenanaspick  ;  gteAtin  ha  n-eAspOg,  glen 

of  the  bishops. 

Easpog  is  the  Latin  word  episcopus  Gaelicised. 
Glenanaspick  contains  a  churchyard  in  which, 
O'Donovan  says,  four  bishops  were  interred. 
Glenanaspick,  or  Glen,  as  it  is  now  called,  had  four 
cartrons,  or  about  500  acres,  of  church  land.  The 
continual  use  of  this  place-name  in  its  contracted 
form  will,  if  it  has  not  already  done  so,  obscure 
the  tradition  regarding  the  bishops.  Glenanas- 
pick is  in  parish  of  Ardagh. 

GLENAWOE ;  gteAnn  tIA  mt)0,  valley  of  the 
cows. 

This  is  a  little  valley  through  which  a  river 
flows  dividing  Cloughernal  from  Creevy,  in  the 
parish  of  Abbey lara.  The  name  is  now  com- 
monly applied  to  a  spring  well  in  that  valley. 


GLENMORE  ;  gteAnn  mOtl,  large  glen. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


123 


GLENNAGH;  gteAtin  eAC,  glen  of  horses. 

GLENOUGHILL ;  SteAtltl  eOCAltt,  glen  of  yew 
tree. 

GOBROOA ;  got)  tttl AT),  red  point. 

Gob  literally  means  the  bill  of  a  bird. 

Golatnave  ;  gAttAt  A  U-SttAtilA,  forked  place 
of  the  swimming. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  place  on  the  shore  of 
the  beautiful  Loch  Gamhna,  where  formerly 
there  was  much  bathing.  T)fU}im  piArha  (now 
Drumsna,  in  County  Leitrim),  swimming  ridge; 
Lixnaw  (Le^c  fnAtri<\),  flag-stone  of  swimming. 

Gortaclare  ;  50RU  A  CtAltl,  field  of  the  plank 
for  crossing. 

Gortahirke;  gOtlU  A  COIRCe,  field  of  the 
oats. 

Gortnaniske  ;  50RU  ha  n-eisce,  field  of  tne 

river  or  quagmire. 

Jopc  means  a  plot  of  ground  fenced  and 
cultivated. 


124 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Gortakinny;  gOtlU  field  abound- 

ing  in  gorse. 

GORTAURD  ;  gOtlU  AtlT),  high  field. 
Gortboy  ;  50RC  tDtntte,  yellow  field. 

GORTEEN  ;  gtimcTn,  little  field. 

This  place  was  originally  called  pope  An  S111!1" 
an,  and  is  situated  in  the  parish  of  Clonbroney. 
It  was  formerly  in  the  territory  of  Clanshane. 
"  According  to  an  inquisition  taken  the  tenth 
year  of  James  I.,  Portanghuirteen  contained 
two  cartrons  of  land.  Brian  O'Farrell  was  slain 
at  the  island  of  Portanghuirteen  in  1443." — Four 
Masters.  Clan-Shane,  the  descendants  of 
SeagAn  6  peAfigAil,  owned  Cairbre  Gabhra, 
which  was  the  ancient  name  of  the  barony  of 
Granard  and  the  Castle  of  Granard.  Clan- 
Hugh,  a  sept  of  the  OTarrells,  owned  territory 
corresponding  to  the  barony  of  Longford. 

Pierce  MacCraidin,  Dean  of  Clan-Hugh,  died 
1 512. — Four  Masters. 

Clan-Auliff  possessed  territory  now  known  as 
the  barony  of  Moydow.  Abbeydearg,  and  the 
churches  of  Kilashee  and  Moydow  belonged  to 
them. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


125 


Gorteenaglune  ;  gtnRuiri  tiA  glume,  little 
field  of  the  knee. 

"  St.  Patrick  impressed  his  knee  on  a  stone 
here." 

GORTEENACLAREEN  ;  gtHtlUltl  A  CtAIRItl,  little 
field  of  the  plank. 

GORTEENGAR;  gtHRUItl    geARR,  short  little 
field. 

GORTEENACLOON  ;  gtHRUin  HA  SCttlAltl,  little 
garden  of  the  lawns. 

GORTLAGHAN  ;  gORU  teACAtl,  broad  field, 

GORTNACORRA ;  gORU  tIA  CORAt),  field  of  the 
weir. 

A  fishing  weir  was  often  owned  by  a  whole 
pne,  or  tribe. 

GORTNACURRAGH  ;  JORU  tIA  g-CtlRRAC,  field 
of  the  curraghs. 

Gortnagower;  50RC  tIA  tlgAttAR,  field  of 
the  goats. 

Gortnamuck;  50RC  tIA  mtIC,  field  of  the 
pigs. 


126 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Gowlan  ;  5At)tAtl,  a  forked  place. 

GOWN  a;  SAttltlA,  this  is  the  genitive  case  of 
54th aw,  which  means  a  calf. 

The  Post-office  authorities  having  put  up  the 
name  Gowna  over  the  Post-office  in  the  village  of 
Scrabby  (recte,  Screabach — 01  Donovan),  County 
Cavan,  the  village  is  now  known  by  that  pseu- 
donym. 

According  to  O'Donovan  the  village  of  Scrabby 
is  very  ancient.  It  was  originally  called  (as 
given  by  Lewis  in  corrupt  English)  Ballimac- 
kelleny,  and  in  the  year  183 1  contained  forty 
human  habitations,  and  183  souls. 

Mananan  MacLir,  the  Neptune  of  the  Irish, 
lived,  it  is  said,  in  his  palace  at  Lake  Enniskeen, 
in  County  Monaghan.  On  getting  some  un- 
pleasant news  from  St.  Columcille  he  left  the 
country.  He  was  succeeded  by  MacMirneanta, 
who  was  chief  of  the  Ulster  fairies.  This  gentle- 
man selected  for  his  ciji  n<\  n-65  the  hill  of 
Ballimackelleny,  now  the  hill  of  Scrabby,  in 
County  Cavan. —  Transactions  of  Ossianic  Society. 

Gamkain,  a  year-old  calf  in  the  month  of  Gam 
(November),  after  Samhuin  (Hallowtide).  Garnh- 
nach*%.  milking-cow  with  a  year-old  calf.  Novem- 
*  Camhnach  also  means  a  stripper  cow. 


From  Photo  by] 


lot  gAttitiA  (Lough  Gowna). 


[Rev.  J.  MacGivney. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


127 


ber  got  the  name  Gam  from  the  Greek  7^09  (a 
wedding),  because  it  was  a  fashionable  time 
with  the  ancients  to  marry  {mulieres  ducere). 
The  Attic  month  (latter  half  of  January  and  the 
beginning  of  February),  got  the  name  Yajwpiiwv, 
for  the  same  reason.  Loch  Gamhna  is  about 
six  miles  long  and  varies  from  a  half  to  three 
miles  in  width.  It  is  a  very  irregular  sheet  of 
water,  winding  round  the  dense  woods,  which 
contribute  very  much  to  its  scenery.  About  a 
mile  to  the  north  of  Inchmore  is  a  small  island 
called  Jasper,  because  stones  of  the  jasper  kind 
were  found  there.  Sailing  one  Sunday  evening 
to  this  island,  I  examined  a  stone  I  got  there, 
and  found  it  of  a  siliceous  nature,  remarkably 
hard  and  heavy.  When  the  lake  rises  this 
island  cannot  be  seen.  This  lake,  partly  in  the 
barony  of  Clanmahon,  but  for  the  most  part  in 
the  barony  of  Granard,  divides  the  parish  of 
Columcille — more  correctly,  Columcille  West — 
from  Columcille  East,  now  better  known  as 
parish  of  Scrabby.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that, 
up  to  the  days  of  Dr.  Kilcfuff,  former  Bishop  of 
Ardagh,  this  parish  was  known  only  by  the 
former  name.  Streams  which  rise  immediately 
north  of  Granard,  flow  into  Loch  Gamhna, 
which  sends  its  superfluous  waters  through  the 


128 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Erne,  into  the  ocean  at  Ballyshannon  (recM, 
Beal-atha-Seanaighy  i.e.>  mouth  of  ford  of  fox); 
while  streams  which  rise  in  and  south  of  Granard 
flow  southwards,  into  the  Inny,  which  empties 
itself  into  the  Shannon,  which  discharges  itself 
into  the  ocean  at  Limerick.  This  shows,  as  will 
be  seen,  that  Granard  is,  as  the  name  implies, 
high  ground. 

Graffog  ;  grubbed  land. 

This  townland  is  in  the  parish  of  Ardagh; 
there  is  another  townland  of  the  same  name,  and 
having  the  same  meaning,  in  parish  of  Granard, 
near  Clonbroney. 

Greagh  ;  gtieAC,  a  mountain  flat. 

GRANARD;  StlAtlAtlT)  or  5tl4tttlA>0,  ugly  height; 
or,  as  Dr.  O'Connor  interprets  it,  gpeitie  &po, 
hill  of  the  sun. 

"  The  castles  of  Nobber,  Drogheda,  and  Gra- 
nard (the  latter  built  by  Tuite  in  1199  or  1200), 
all  with  lofty  motes,  were  well  placed  to  defend 
the  northern  frontier  of  the  province.  The  large 
mote  marks  the  site  of  Tuite's  castle  at  Granard, 
where  he  entertained  King  John  on  the  12th 
August,  1 2 10." — Journal  of  Royal  Society  of 
Antiquarians. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


129 


From  an  old  tradition  woven  into  poetry  and 
printed  a  few  hundred  years  ago,  it  is  known 
that  the  more  ancient  name  of  Granard  was 
Meathuslith ;  Meathus  (pronounced  Mahus) 
meaning  fertile  in  reference  to  the  land,  as  it 
does  in  the  place-name  Mostrim  (Meathustruitn). 
It  appears  from  this  tradition*  that  Conal  Gul- 
ban,  the  youngest  son  of  Niall  the  Great,  was  to 
get  all  the  country  round  Granard ;  but  the 
Druids,  having  held  a  consultation,  decided  in 
favour  of  Cairbre,  the  eldest  son  of  Niall 

"  Conal  Gulban's  eyes  with  joy  grew  bright, 
That  soon  with  tears  were  dim, 
When  he  was  told  by  an  ollave  old, 
That  Meathuslith  plain  was  not  for  him. 

"  On  Gartan  mountain,  barren  and  high, 
That  rises  straight  as  a  wall, 
On  a  rising  mound  his  castle  frowned 
In  northern  Donegal." 

Etc.,  etc. 

Whatever  truth  there  is  in  these  verses  (and  they 
are  many),  one  thing  is  clear,  the  writer  was  not 
wholly  ignorant  of  Irish  history. 

*  The  story  told  in  Dean  Monahan's  Essay  on  Ardagh  of  a 
territorial  dispute  between  Cairbre  of  Granard  and  his  brother 
Conal,  gives  a  colour  of  truth  to  this  tradition. 

I 


130 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


It  is  traditionally  told  by  the  oldest  men  in 
the  parishes  of  Ballymachugh,  Abbeylara,  and 
Mullahoran  that  Granard  means  "ugly  height;" 
that  the  man  (probably  Cairbre)  for  whom  the 
Moat  was  built,  not  pleased  with  it,  said  :  1f 
<xjfo  e,  i.e.,  it  is  an  ugly  height.  O' Dono- 
van says  that  this  is  the  correct  interpretation  of 
Granard.  The  word  Granard,  therefore,  refers 
to  the  Moat  and  the  high  ground  beyond  it — 
-Afro  meaning  high,  and  not  to  the  town  which, 
or  at  least  the  greater  part  of  which,  is  situated 
in  the  townland  of  Rathcronan.  The  town  of 
Granard  is,  comparatively  speaking,  in  low 
ground,  whereas  Granard,  that  is  its  name,  means 
high  ground.  Strictly  speaking  it  is  incorrect  to 
call  the  present  town  by  the  name  Granard.  The 
old  town  of  Granard,  which  stood  near  Granard- 
cille,  was  the  scene  of  many  a  bloody  conflict. 
It  was  burned  by  Edward  Bruce  in  13 15,  so  that 
it  never  rose  to  a  town  of  any  importance  after- 
wards. After  the  battle  of  Aughrim  (C<xc  C<\c- 
•ojtuim)  12  July,  1691,*  the  inhabitants  having 
abandoned  it,  shifted  eastwards  and  commenced 
to  build  in  the  hollow,  where  now  stands  the 
present  town.    Why  the  Moat  was  called  ugly 

*  Before  the  date  of  the  battle  of  Aughrim  there  was  but  one 
small  house  in  the  present  town  of  Granard. —  Donovan, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


131 


we  do  not  know,  the  high  ground  beyond  it  is 
by  no  means  ugly;  it  is  in  fact,  as  the  Tripartite 
Life  expresses  it,  a  locus  amoenusy  a  charming 
spot,  commanding  an  extensive  view  of  the 
greater  part  of  the  County  Longford.  In  178 1, 
we  are  told,  there  were  in  Granard  several  large 
meetings  of  harpers,  who  competed  for  prizes 
offered  by  John  Dunigan.*  These  competitions 
on  each  occasion  terminated  in  a  ball,  to  which 
in  some  instances  1,000  guests  were  invited. 

"  Lease  (under  commission  17  January,  XXVI. 
Elizabeth)  to  Roger  Radford,  of  the  site  of  the 
manor  of  Granard,  in  the  Annaly,  County  Long- 
ford, with  the  lands,  rents,  customs,  belonging 
to  the  manor,  to  hold  for  21  years.  Rent  £36. 
Maintaining  two  English  horsemen." — Fiants  of 
Elizabeth. 

"  The  vicarage  of  Granard  was  valued  at  £14 
sterling."  f — Carlisle. 

Granardkille  ;  gtlAtiAtit)  citte. 

If  Granard  means  "ugly  height,"  as  the  learned 
O'Donovan  believes  it  does,  then  Granardkille 

*  John  Donegan  was  a  wealthy  Irish  exile. 

t  It  is  an  error  in  some  who  think  that  the  current  money  in 
England  is  called  sterling,  from  Stirling  Castle  ;  for  it  had 
that  name  from  the  Germans,  whom  the  English  called  Easter- 
lings,  from  their  situation  eastwards,  and  whom  King  John 
€rst  called  over  to  reduce  money  to  its  purity." — Ware's  Antiq. 


132 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


means  ugly  height  of  church,  an  interpretation  by 
no  means  acceptable.  This  place-name  should 
be  inverted,  and  the  place  called  Killgranard 
(Citt-5ttAtiAifVo),  £.e.$  church  of  the  ugly  height ; 
the  word  "  ugly,"  referring  to  the  Moat,  not  to 
the  high  ground  around  the  church.  But  an  old 
custom  is  not  easily  changed. 

Inquisition  taken  27th  January,  XXXVII. 
Elizabeth,  finds  here  Hospital,  Termon,  Irenach, 
endowed  with  two  cartrons  of  land. 

Greave  ;  gniorh,  ten  acres. 

The  liquids  n  and  \\  sometimes  interchange  in 
Irish.  Gniomk  is  the  twelfth  part  of  a  f  eif peac 
or  ploughland,  which  consists  of  120  acres. 
This  was  the  amount  of  land  which  a  single 
horse  was  supposed  to  turn  up  in  a  year,  twelve 
times  120  acres  were  equal  to  one  ballybetagh, 
and  30  ballybetaghs  were  equal  to  one  tuath. 
The  term  tuath  originally  meant  a  tribe  whose 
king  had  700  fighting  men  under  his  command, 
then  it  came  to  mean  the  district  inhabited  by 
the  tribe,  which  in  size  was  almost  equal  to  the 
modern  barony.— Joyce* 


GREYTOWN  ;  t)Alte  tl1At)A& 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


133 


Greenanmeva;  5tl1A11An  meAt)t)A,  Queen 
Meave's  palace  built  on  the  north-west  of  Inis 
Clothrann,  in  Lough  Ree. 

"  &  5jiiAHAn,  a  cloc  cuifie, 
T>'AfiCAC  ocuf  "o'dp  buit>e, 
Utngi  *6]itiimnec  j;An  *oocrriA, 
T),eicib  "oonriA  if  "oejig  copcrtA." 

— From  i?0<?£  of  Lismore 

("  Of  its  Grianan  the  corner  stones 
Are  all  of  silver  and  yellow  gold, 
Its  thatch  in  stripes  of  faultless  order, 
Of  wings  of  brown  and  crimson  red.") 

The  Grianan  here  belonged  to  Crede,  the 
daughter  of  Cairbre,  King  of  Kerry.  It  was 
situated  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain  called  the 
"Paps  of  Anann,"  in  Kerry. — C?  Curry. 

Grianan,  derived  from  griany  the  sun,  has 
many  meanings :  {a)  a  nice  sunny  place ;  (V)  a 
summer  house ;  (c)  a  gallery ;  (d)  a  royal  resi- 
dence; thus  Greenan-Ely,  on  the  shores  of 
Lough  Swilly,  where  the  princes  of  Ulster  lived 
for  many  ages.  In  the  famous  palace  of  Rath- 
croghan  (Rac  CfiuACAn),  County  Roscommon, 
built  by  Eochy  Feylach  for  his  daughter  Meave, 
the  grianan  was  placed  in  front  of  the  palace 


134 


PLACE-NAMES. 


over  the  other  apartments.  These  grianain  were 
sometimes  thatched  with  birds'  feathers ;  the 
colours  so  arranged  as  to  exhibit  unity  in 
variety,  which,  as  the  philosophers  tell  us,  is  the 
essence  of  beauty.  Waterford  was  anciently 
called  CuAti-riA-5|tiAn,  i.e.y  the  Harbour  of  the 
sun,  afterwards  it  was  called  5te<xrm-n<\-ri5teo,6, 
or,  the  Valley  of  lamentation,  because  of  a  battle 
fought  there  in  the  tenth  century.  Its  present 
name  is  of  Danish  origin. 

GRILLAGH  ;  JtieAttAC,  a  bare  or  moist  place. 

GULAROE ;  50t)tAC  tttlAt),  red  forks. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  place  in  the  townland  of 
Larkfield,  on  the  shores  of  Loch  Gamhna. 


IGGINSTOWN;  UOCAtl  114 
1TI  6  tt  A,  causeway  of  the 
bog. 


NCHANGIN;  1  tl  1  S  Alttgin,  or, 
locally,  1111S  VIA  n-eAtl,  birds'  island. 

This  place  is  now  known  as  Hare 
Island,  owing,  it  is  said,  to  hares  cross- 
ing over  the  ice  to  it  in  search  of  new 
pastures. 

This  island,  according  to  the  Inquisitions,  con- 
tained one  cartron  of  land.  St.  Ciaran  founded 
i35 


136 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


a  monastery  on  it  about  540.  Before  leaving 
for  Clonmacnoise  he  appointed  St.  Domnan  his 
successor.  In  894  the  Bishop  of  Clonmacnoise, 
Cairbre  Crom,  was  holding  a  Synod  on  this 
island,  when  some  Connaught  men  attacked  and 
killed  many  persons  on  it  As  they  were  return- 
ing home  they  were  in  turn  attacked  by  the 
men  of  Coosan,  near  Athlone,  and  killed.  At 
the  time  of  the  dissolution  of  the  monasteries 
the  Dillons  got  possession  of  the  island,  since 
then  it  has  passed  through  many  hands.  Part 
of  St.  Ciaran's  old  church  still  remains.  The 
mason-work,  which  is  of  a  cyclopean  character, 
indicates  its  antiquity. 

INCHCLERAUN;  1 H1 S  CtOCtlAtltl,  Clothra's 
Isle. 

This  island  formerly  formed  part  of  the  king- 
dom of  Hy-Many.  It  is  now  included  in  the 
County  Longford.  Clothra  was  the  mother  of 
Lughaidh  who  was,  at  a  remote  period,  king  of 
Ireland.  "  In  the  reign  of  Lughaidh  the  lakes 
Neagh  and  Ree  began  to  make  their  appear- 
ance." St.  Diarmid,  patron  of  Inis  Clothrann 
was  brother  of  St.  Fedliminus,  who  was  Bishop 
of  Kilmore  ;  both  were  descended  from  Dathy, 
the  last  pagan  king  of  Ireland,  who  was  killed  in 


From  Photo  by]  [J.  T.  Hoban. 

Church  of  St.  Ciaran,  Inisainghin,  Loch  Ribh  (Ree). 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


137 


427.  St.  Diarmid  was  the  teacher  of  St.  Ciaran 
of  Inisangin,  afterwards  the  founder  of  Clon- 
macnoise.  Inis  Clothrann,  as  a  religious  seat,  is 
probably  older  than  Clonmacnoise.  St.  Diarmid 
wrote  a  pious  work  which  the  learned  Colgan 
states  was  in  his  possession.  His  festival  is 
honoured  on  the  10th  of  January.  St.  Diarmid's 
church,  measuring  eight  feet  by  seven,  is  said  to 
be  the  smallest  in  Ireland.  To  the  north-west 
of  Grianan  Meadhbha,  or  Queen  Meave's  palace, 
is  Temple  Clogas,  the  first  church  erected  by 
St.  Diarmid  on  Inis  Clothrann.  The  belfry  of 
this  church  was  thirty  feet  high  and  its  bell  so 
loud-sounding  as  to  be  heard  a  distance  of 
seven  miles.  It  is  one  of  the  few  ancient 
square  belfries  now  existing  in  Ireland. 

"  I  shall  visit  Inis  Clothrann, 
Which  exceeds  all  the  others  far  in  beauty. 
It  was  on  this  isle  of  grass  and  beauty 
That  Meave  of  Croghan,  Queen  of  Connaught, 
Fell  by  the  son  of  the  King  of  Uladh. 
In  time  of  war  and  bloody  murders, 
The  Clanna  Rory  and  the  sons  of  Uisneach, 
Mighty  men  of  strength  and  courage, 
Rose  up  to  war  and  emulation, 
For  one  fair  damsel,  ycleped  Deirdre. 


133 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Five  hundred  years  after  the  Saviour 
Had  suffered  for  the  sins  of  mankind, 
The  holy  Diarmid  here  erected 
Seven  churches  and  a  steeple ; 
He  also  placed  on  Inis  Clothrann, 
That  beauteous,  fertile,  airy,  island, 
Two  convents  of  which  the  ruins 
Are  to  be  seen  still  on  the  island." 

—MSS.  of  Ord.  Survey. 

This  island,  sometimes  called  "  Quaker  Island," 
also  "  Island  of  the  Seven  Churches,"  is  about 
one  mile  long  and  one-third  of  a  mile  broad. 
By  reason  of  its  churches  it  is  the  most  impor- 
tant island  in  Lough  Ree.  From  the  middle  of 
the  eighth  to  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century, 
bishops,  priests,  poets,  historians,  professors, 
princes,  chiefs,  without  count,  lived,  died,  and 
were  buried,  on  this  holy  isle. 
"  Fair  City  of  the  Lake,  the  day  is  long  gone  past, 
When  choral  voices  lent  rich  echoes  to  the  blast." 

Inchboffin;  1t11S  t>0  pintle,  island  of  the 
white  cow. 

Inis  Mhic  Ualaing  was  the  ancient  name  of 
this  island,  which  contains  about  twenty-seven 
acres.  It  lies  about  six  miles  from  Inis  Cloth- 
ran.  The  island  contains  two  churches.  The 
church  on  the  south  end  of  the  island  shows 


From  Photo  by\  U>  T.  Hoban. 

Church  of  St.  Rioch,  Inchboffin. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


139 


a  window  much  admired  by  archaeologists. 
St.  Rioch  was,  according  to  O'Donovan,  vene- 
rated on  this  island  on  6th  February.  In  the 
Calendar  of  the  Irish  Saints  his  feast  falls  on 
1st  August.  It  is  said  that  St.  Rioch,  who 
founded  a  monastery  here  about  450,  was  the 
curator  or  custodian  of  St.  Patrick's  books. 
This,  as  well  as  the  other  islands  in  Lough  Ree, 
suffered  very  much  from  the  Danes. 

"  They  were  fair  till  the  Danish  invader 
Swept  down  with  his  fire  and  sword, 
To  loot  and  to  burn  was  his  glory, 
And  greed  was  the  God  he  adored." 

— Brian  na  Banban. 

INCHDERMOTT. 

St.  Diarmid  blessed  all  the  islands  in  Lough 
Ree  except  one,  which  is  called  1mf  Th&ftttt4i*o 
T>e4r\m<voc4  (or,  briefly,   1nif  *Oi<\|AmAi,o), 
Diarmid's  forgotten  island. 

INCHMORE  (in  LochRibh);  1111S  tflOtl,  great 
island  in  Lough  Ree. 

This  island  contains  104  acres  of  arable  land. 
In  the  fifteenth  century  an  Augustinian  monas- 
tery was  founded  here  ;  it  and  its  possessions 
were  handed  over  to  Thomas  Philips  in  the  reign 
of  Elizabeth. 


140 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


"  Lease  under  commission,  26  September, 
IX.  of  Elizabeth,  to  Thos.  Philips,  gent.,  of  the 
islands  of  Inshmore  in  Loughry,  in  part  of  the 
flood  of  the  Shynnen,  Inshelyggen,  Inshclogh- 
rene,  with  four  messuages  and  the  stone  walls  of 
a  monastery,  Calanishe,  alias  Inshcalla,  Inshen- 
enagh  and  Inshekanbegdermuyd,  all  in  Loughry, 
with  their  tithes,  to  hold  for  21  years  at  a  rent 
of  25s.  2d.  Not  to  alien  without  license.  Not 
to  let  except  to  English  by  both  parents,  and  not 
to  charge  coyn.*  Fine,  20s." — Fiants  of  Elizabeth* 

*  "  Maurice  Fitz-Thomas,  Earl  of  Desmond,  was  the  first  of 
the  English  who  charged  the  subject  with  the  heavy  tax  called 
Coyn  and  Livery,  namely,  money,  food  and  lodging  for  man 
and  horse.  This  he  is  said  to  have  introduced  in  the  time  of 
Edward  II.,  King  of  England,  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
King's  army  against  the  Scots  in  Ireland,  who  then  ravaged 
the  country  under  the  command  of  Edward  Bruce,  who  had 
declared  himself  King  of  Ireland.  .  .  .  Coyn  is  an  English 
word  signifying  money,  and  Livery,  in  the  more  moderate 
acceptation,  signifies  necessaries  either  as  a  just  due  or  for 
honour  sake,  given  to  magistrates,  strangers,  travellers. 

"  But  in  Ireland  those  impositions  were  exacted  with  so  much 
rigour  and  insolence,  and  neither  limited  to  certain  times  or 
places,  that  it  caused  the  depopulation,  exile  and  extirpation 
of  many  of  the  principal  subjects,  and  many  grew  idle  and  lay 
still,  expecting  an  end  of  their  miseries  and  the  oppression  of 
the  times.  To  which  miseries  we  may  add  (out  of  the  Statute 
of  the  X.  of  Henry  VII.)  the  murders,  rapes,  and  thefts  com- 
mitted by  those  very  soldiers  who  were  maintained  by  these 
exactions.  At  last  the  same  Irish  exactions  prevailed  among 
some  English  of  eminent  place,  as  particularly  the  Earls  of 
Desmond.  But  in  the  reign  of  King  James  the  laws  of  the 
land  were  universally  received,  and  these  taxes  and  oppres- 
sions were  wholly  laid  aside." —  Ware's  Antiq, 


From  Photo  by]  [Rev.  J.  MacGivney. 

St.  Columcille's  Monastery,  Inchmore,  Lough  Gowna. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


141 


INCHMORE  (in  Loch  Gamhna);  1I11S  til  Oil  tOCA 
JAThtlA,  great  island  of  Lough  Gowna. 

Inis  derived  from  znse,  difficult  of  access,  is 
not  as  much  used  in  the  spoken  language  as 
oilean. — 0' Donovan. 

"  The  local  tradition  is  that  the  ruined  church 
which  still  remains  on  it  (Saints'  Island,  in  Loch 
Ce),  was  founded  by  St.  Columcille  about  the 
same  time  as  he  founded  the  church  on  Oilean 
na  Naemh,  or  Saints'  Island,  in  Loch  Gamhna 
(Gowna)  in  County  Longford.  St.  Columcille 
founded  a  church  on  some  island  in  Loch  Ce 
about  year  550." — 0' Curry. 

"  After  this  the  blessed  man  journeying  into 
Breffney,  blessed  an  island  situate  on  the  lake 
there  called  Loch  Gamhna." 

The  blessed  island  contains  about  twenty-five 
acres  of  good  land.  There  are  on  it  the  remains 
of  two  churches,  St.  Columcille's,  to  the  south,  the 
portrait  of  which  is  herewith  given,  St.  Ciaran's 
to  the  north  of  the  island.  A  remnant  of  a  wall 
partly  covered  with  ivy  is  all  that  now  remains 
of  St.  Ciaran's  ancient  home.  According  to 
O'Donovan  St.  Ciaran,  who  owned  the  eastern 
half  of  the  island,  was  the  patron  saint  of  Abbey- 
tera.  This  parish  is  now  under  the  tutelage  of 
St.  Bernard. 


142 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Biodan  Mor,  son  of  Lughach,  was  Bishop  of 
Inis  Mor;  his  feast  falls  on  14th  January.  If 
this  Saint  died  496,  as  some  say  he  did,  then  he 
must  have  been  Bishop  of  St.  Ciaran's  Church, 
which  looks  more  ancient  than  St.  Columcille's. 
St.  Columcille  was  born  521,  and,  therefore, 
churches  founded  by  him,  or  dedicated  to  him, 
cannot  date  further  back  than  about  the  middle 
of  the  sixth  century.  In  804  this  island  and  its 
churches  suffered  from  the  Danes,  who  sailed  up 
the  Erne.  St.  Columcille's  monastery  became  a 
very  rich  institution,  for  it  is  stated  in  the 
Inquisitions  that  it  possessed  land  to  the  amount 
of  fifteen  cartrons.  In  141 5  Cam  on  n  tTlAcpionti- 
t>Afip  (Anglice  Gay  nor),  abbot  of  this  monastery, 
died.  Fionnbharr  means  fair  countenance,  "et 
ob  insignem  oris  candorem  Finbarrus  est  ap- 
pellatus." — II.  Noct.  Offici.  Div.  5/.  Finbarr. 

"  Gone  is  Bangor  and  its  glory  and  the  halls  of  high 
Clonard ! 

Inismh6r  hears  Gowna's  murmur,  not  the  chant 
of  cowled  Fionnbarr." 

— Anonymous. 

A  numerous  people  named  Fionnbarr  formerly 
inhabited  the  country  west  of  Loch  Gamhna. 

In  the  thirteenth  or  fourteenth  century  this 
monastery  became  a  branch  house  of  the  great 
monastery  of  Abbeylara,  to  which  parish  half 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


143 


of  the  island  of  Inismhor  belonged.  Richard 
OTarrell  was  the  last  abbot  of  Abbeylara.  In 
1 54 1  he  had  to  surrender  his  own  monastery, 
also  the  monastery  in  Loch  Gamhna.  By  Act 
of  Parliament  under  St.  Leger  *  Henry  was 
granted  possession  of  the  monasteries ;  then  the 
work  of  spoliation  commenced,  and  was  con- 
tinued with  greater  rapacity  under  Elizabeth, 
who  handed  over  the  possessions  of  this  monas- 
tery to  Christopher  Nugent,  as  the  following 
extract  shows  : — 

"  Lease  under  letters,  10th  May,  IX.  of  Eliza- 
beth, to  Christopher  Nugent,  Lord  of  Delvin, 
the  site  of  the  monastery  of  Inchmore  in  Lough 
gawne,  and  the  land  of  the  same  island  and 
Inchmore  for  21  years  from  1581 ;  rent  £6  14s.  8d. 
Not  to  alien  without  license  under  the  great 
seal,  and  not  to  levy  coyn.  30th  June,  IX.  Eliza- 
beth."— Fiants  of  Elizabeth. 

Inny  River  ;  At)Ainn  riA  H-eitne. 

This  river,  it  is  said,  was  called  after  the  wife 
of  Conchobar  MacNessa,  King  of  Ulster,  whose 

*  In  this  Parliament,  which  was  begun  at  Dublin  under  Sent- 
leger,  on  the  13th  June,  1541,  the  full  and  free  disposal  of  all  the 
Abbeys  of  Ireland  in  the  Statute  expressed,  was  confirmed  to 
the  King,  who  soon  after  disposed  of  their  lands  and  posses- 
sions to  his  Nobles,  Courtiers  and  others,  reserving  to  himself 
certain  annual  rents." — Wares  Antiq. 


144 


PLACE-NAMES 


birth  and  death  happened  on  the  same  hours  as 
the  birth  and  death  of  Christ.  Eithne  is  the 
Irish  for  Annie  and  signifies  knowledge.  For  a 
fuller  explanation  see  Addendum  at  end  of 
book. 

Inny  Glen;  gteAntl  HA  H-ei  trie,  glen  of  the 
Inny. 

Cumar  is  another  term  for  a  glen  or  valley, 
and  from  it  is  derived  "  Kimri,"  which  was  the 
ancient  name  of  the  people  of  Wales,  a  country 
marked  with  many  hills  and  valleys. 


UN  AD  MARBA  MEVA;  10ttAT> 
tt1ATtl)tA  ttiexVOtte,  place  where 
Queen  Meave  was  killed. 

After  the  death  of  her  husband, 
OHoll  (who  was  killed  by  Conall  Cear- 
nach,  or  Conall  the  Victorious),  and 
her  paramour,  Fergus,  the  dethroned 


King  of  Ulster,  Queen  Meadhbh  retired 
to  Inis  Clothrann,  in  Loch  Ribh  (Ree).  While 
here  it  was  usual  with  her  to  bathe  every  morn- 
ing in  the  lake.  To  avenge  the  assistance  which 
she  gave  Fergus  in  making  war  on  Ulster,  For- 
bhuidhe,  the  son  of  Conchobar  MacNessa,  de- 
termined to  "  cut  her  off."  With  this  indention 
he  had  the  distance  from  Elfeet  Bay  to  her 
bathing-place  measured.  He  took  the  measure 
with  him  to  Emania,  his  residence ;  here  he 
fixed  two  stakes  in  the  ground,  their  distance 

145  K 


146 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


apart  being  equal  to  the  distance  measured  from 
Elfeet  to  the  Queen's  bathing-place.  On  one 
of  these  stakes  he  fixed  an  apple,  and  standing 
at  the  other,  he  kept  firing  at  the  apple  with  his 
cp<\rm  unbuilt,  or  sling,  till  he  became  a  perfect 
shot  Now  it  happened  that  there  was  a  meeting 
of  the  men  of  Ulster  and  Connaught  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Shannon,  opposite  Inis  Clothrann. 
Forbhuidhe  attended  this  meeting,  which  af- 
forded him  an  opportunity  of  executing  his 
wicked  intention.  Rising  early  one  morning  he 
armed  himself  with  his  crann  tabhuill>  or  firing 
machine,  and  when  Meave  came,  as  usual,  to 
bathe,  he  aimed  a  stone  at  her  head,  which 
killed  her  instantly.  The  place  where  she  fell 
has  been  known  by  the  above  name  to  this 
day.  This  happened  about  70  a.d.  According 
to  Pliny  the  Phoenicians  were  the  first  people  to 
use  the  sling.  In  the  wars  of  Israel  there  were 
stone-slingers.  David  killed  Goliath  in  this  way; 
and  the  Romans  employed  the  Balearians  as 
stone-throwers. 

11  Next  let  me  visit  that  fair  lovely  isle, 
Which  lies  in  bright  Loughree,  about  a  mile 
From  Analy's  shore — an  isle  on  which  St.  Darby 
Erected  seven  churches  and  a  steeple, 
In  which  he  placed  a  bell  to  call  the  people. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


14; 


An  isle  on  which  the  brave,  fierce  champion, 
Forby, 

Despatched  old  Meava,  that  warlike  Connacht 
Queen, 

Who  proved  herself  to  be  as  great  a  queen 
As  e'er  the  isle  of  Druids  and  Saints  produced, 
Who  was,  'tis  said,  by  Fergus  Roy  seduced, 
Or  vice  versa.    Forby  with  a  sling, 
Did  cast  a  stone,  it  was  a  mighty  fling 
From  Analy's  shore  to  Clothra's  fertile  isle, 
By  which  he  smote,  let  modern  sceptics  smile, 
This  warlike  woman — noble  Quean  and  Queen, 
And  ended  thus  that  furious  war  between 
The  thrones  of  Cruachan  and  Emania.  So 
The  bards  have  sung  and  ancient  records  show.'' 
—Journal  Roy.  Soc.  of  Antiq* 

Johnston's  Bridge;  cnoc  Atl  T)ttOl5neAitt, 
hill  of  the  blackthorn. 

Droighne&in  is  found  in  surnames ;  in  the  west 
of  Ireland  it  is  Anglicised  Thornton. 


148 


PLACE-NAMES. 


There  is  on  Inismhor,  Loch  Gamhna,  a  large 
stone  (the  long  narrow  stone  in  the  accompanying 
illustration  is  the  one  I  allude  to)  much  worn,  on 
which  St.  Columcille,  according  to  tradition,  left 
the  impression  of  his  two  holy  knees,  hard  as 
those  of  St.  James,  from  constant  praying,  and 
of  his  four  fingers  and  one  thumb.  On  looking 
closely  at  this  stone  these  impressions  will  be 
seen. 

We  are  told  that  the  two  Emers,  sisters  of 
St.  Guasacht,  Bishop  of  Granard,  left  the  im- 
pression of  their  feet  in  a  stone  on  which  they 
stood,  when  they  received  the  blessed  veil  from 
St.  Patrick  at  Clonbroney,  County  Longford. 
"  Who  (Emers)  after  they  had  been  consecrated 
with  the  sacred  veil,  left  the  tracts  of  their  feet 
impressed  in  the  stone  on  which  they  stood, 
which  tracts  are  to  be  seen  to  this  day"  (1837). 
— O Donovan.  And  Dr.  Healy,  in  his  Life  of 
St.  Patrick^  gives  a  quotation  which  tells  us  the 
same.  Are  we  to  believe,  as  some  writers  would 
have  us  to  believe,  that  such  marks  were  in  every 
instance  cut  by  the  chisel  of  the  stone-cutter? 
The  Saint  s  holy  well,  stopped  by  the  hand  of 
cultivation,  cannot  now  be  identified. 


From  Photo  by]  [Rev.  J.  MacGtvney. 

St.  Columcille's  Stone,  Inchmore,  Lough  Gowna. 

(The  Flat  Stone  at  left  side.) 


EEL;  CAOt,  narrow  ridge,  a  marsh. 
This  is  a  large  townland  con- 
taining four  cartrons. 

Keelbawn  ;    CAOt  t>£«, 
narrow  white  ridge. 

Keeldordan;   C01tt   T>AtVOA1t1,  Dardan's 
wood. — 0*  Donovan. 

Keeldra  ;  C6AtT)tlAC,  an  unconsecrated  burial 
ground. 

This  word  is  also  spelled  ceAUxjiac. 

Keeldramore;  ceAVOft&C  tnOtl,  great  burial- 
ground. 

In  Cavan  these  places  are  called  caldragh.  In 
County  Galway  they  are  written  with  a  /,  for 
instance,  Caltra  in  thb  tTUine. — J1,  Concannon. 

KEELOG ;  CAOtOg,  narrow  ridge. 

149 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


KEELOGALABAWN ;  CAOtOg  A  tAbAin, 
labourer's  narrow  ridge. 

Keelognasause  ;  CAOtOg   tIA  SAS,  narrow 
ridge  of  the  nets  or  engines. 

KENAGH;  CAOttAC,  moss. 

This  is  a  small  townland  of  one  cartron.  In 
1837  the  village  contained  eighty-one  human 
habitations  and  396  souls.  50  t>eirhiti,  feo  aic 
Atuwn  te  f uitie  ffof  <xp  f  e<vo  cAtnaitt  te  fcfC  vo 

Keshnahowna  ;  ceiS  HA  t1-At)A1t1tie,  cause- 
way of  the  river. 

KILASHEE ;  C1tt  A'  SVt>e,  church  of  the  hill. 
S'ro  originally  meant  a  fairy,  but  as  it  was 
the  belief  that  fairies  dwelt  in  the  interior  of 
nice  hills,  it  came  to  signify  a  hill.  The  ancient 
name  of  Kilashee  was  Achadhcaorthain,  the 
field  of  the  rowan  tree.  Kilashee  was  situated  in 
the  ancient  territory  of  Maghtraigha.  The  feast 
of  the  holy  virgin,  Brinsioc  of  Moy  tra,  Longford, 
is  honoured  on  29th  May. 

Maghtraigha  (TH45  qiAjja),  means  plain  of 
the  strand  or  shore,  in  reference  to  the  River 
Shannon. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


Kilasonna;  C1tt  A'  SOtlAlt),  church  of  the 
mound,  rampart,  or  palisade. 

Kilcomock  ;  C1tV6A-CAm05,  St.  Dd  Camog's 
Church. 

According  to  O'Donovan  the  patron  saint  of 
this  parish  should  be  St.  Dd  Cam6g,  and  not 
St.  Domnick.  One  cartron  of  land,  free  of  rent 
and  taxes,  was  attached  to  Kill-dd-Camog.  The 
Saint's  holy  well  was  called  Cloghree  (Ctoc  pig), 
or  "  stone  of  the  king."  It  was  probably  near 
the  Saint's  church,  in  the  townland  of  Kil- 
comock. 

Kilcurry;  roitt  A9  CtmtlA1$,  wood  of  the 
moor. 

KlLDEREEN  ;  C01tt  *001tl1t1,  wood  of  little  derry. 
KlLEEN  ;  COtttftl,  little  wood. 

Kilfintan;  C1tt  FlOtltAin,  St.  Fintan's 
Church. 

"The  parish  of  Street,"  says  O'Donovan, 
"  should  be  called  Kilfintan,  after  St.  Fintain, 
who  was  the  original  founder  of  it,  and  not  from 
a  country  street  town  (baite  rp4it>e),  which  is 
not  remarkable  for  its  history  or  antiquity."  It 
is  traditionally  told  that  St.  Fintain  is  interred 


152 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


in  a  mound  (ce<xrm  ajvo)*  which  is  situate  on  the 
left-hand  side  of  the  road  leading  from  Granard 
to  Lismacaffrey,  on  the  bank  of  a  small  river, 
near  the  latter  place.  St.  Fintain' s  feast-day 
falls  on  ioth  October.  Stations  are  performed 
at  his  holy  well  on  the  first  Sunday  in  August. 
There  were  many  saints  of  this  name,  notably 
St.  Fintain  of  Cluain  eidhneach,  or  the  ivy  lawn, 
whose  feast  is  honoured  on  17th  February,  and 
St.  Fintain  Munna  of  Tagmon  (Ueac  ttlurma, 
Munna's  Church  or  Cell,  County  Wexford), 
whose  feast  falls  on  21st  October. 

KlLGLASS ;  C1tt  gtAS,  grey  church. 

KlLINA ;  C01U,  AH  £eAt)A,  wood  of  the  rushes. 

KILLINBORE;  COlttfn  bO 'OAR,  dull  little 
wood. 

Killeeny;  Clttini'Oe,  little  churches. 

KiLLENURE;  COltUtl  4tt  1  lib <\m,  little  wood 
of  the  yew  tree. 

Killeendowa  j  COltUn  tlf  *6tltyOA,  O'Dowd's 
little  wood. 

tH  is  the  genitive  of  6  which  formerly  meant 
grandson,  but  now  means  any  male  descendant. 

*  1f  e  ah  r-Atntn  aca  aiji— "  Kenard,"  recti%  ce-ann  Ajro,  high 
head. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


O-surnames  are  older  and  more  numerous  than 
Mac-surnames  except  in  the  north  of  Ireland, 
In  the  penal  days  when  everything  Irish  was 
held  in  odium,  many  people  dropped  the  6  and 
the  Mac  prefixes  to  their  names.  To  escape 
detection  some  translated  the  Mac  and  added 
it  on  to  the  end  of  their  surnames,  thus, 
MacStephen  became  Stephenson;  MacNeill  be- 
came Nelson ;  MacEdmond  became  Edmond- 
son.  Another  way  of  concealing  the  Mac  was  to 
change  its  c  to g,  thus  Mag,  which  became  united  or 
incorporated  with  the  ancestral  name.  MacCann 
then  became  Magann;  MacRannel  was  written 
Magrannell;  Mac Auley  became  Magauley.  This 
change  could  easily  be  made  where  the  ancestral 
name  began  with  a  vowel  or  /"aspirated,  /,  n>  r, 
s  and  d. 

If  the  surname  in  its  Anglicised  form  begins 
with  h,  then  the  Irish  form  of  the  name  will, 
in  most  instances,  take  6.  Thus  Heslin  in  its 
Irish  form  is  6  h-6iptin ;  Hart  becomes  6  h-Aipc; 
Harten,  6  h-AficAiri.  The  k  is  not  part  of  the 
ancestral  name  but  a  euphonic  letter  put  in 
between  the  two  vowels. 

Most  surnames  which  begin  with  Mai,  Mul, 
etc.,  take  6  as  a  prefix  in  their  Irish  forms, 
thus  :  Mallon  in  Irish  is  6  tHe^tUm ;  Muldoon 


154 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


becomes  6  Tn4ott>i3in  ;  Malcolm,  6  tH<\ot  CoUn, 
one  devoted  to  St.  Columcille. 

KiLLETRE;  COltX  eAUAR,  central  wood. 

Aughavaens  (Ac<v6  ttieA*6<Mn),  central  field, 
situated  in  parish  of  Scrabby,  County  Cavan. 

KlLLENAWAS ;  COltt  Atl  AttlAIS,  soldiers'  wood. 

Situated  near  Clonbroney. 

O'Donovan  found  some  difficulty  in  explain- 
ing this  place-name.  He  gathered  from  the 
tradition  of  the  people  that  formerly  there  was 
a  quarrel  between  the  O'Farrells  and  the  Sheri- 
dans ;  that  a  section  of  O'Farrell's  followers 
concealed  themselves  in  a  wood  at  this  place, 
and  hence  the  name.  Amhas  is  derived  from 
am,  not,  and  fos,  rest,  one  who  has  no  rest, 
then  it  came  to  mean  a  hireling  soldier.  In 
Munster  it  signifies  a  hound,  a  beagle. 

Ossory  (Amhas-rigk)  got  its  name  from  King 
Aengus  Amhas-righ,  or  Aengus  of  the  king's 
body-guard,  because  by  King  Aengus  Ossory 
was  exempted  from  taxes,  but  the  men  from  it 
should  compose  the  king's  body-guard,  and 
hence  its  name. — O'Halloran, 

KlLLOE ;  Cltt  eO,  church  of  yew  tree. 

"tt.  pAilbe  6  Cltt  eo  a  jjconcae  an  Longpojic 
ve  Ct<\na  tlui5|Ae, — June  30,"       St.  Failbhe 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


155 


(pronounced  Falvy)  from  Killoe,  in  the  County 
Longford,  of  Clan  Rory.  Feast-day,  June  30th, 
Ruigridhe  (Rory)  was  the  grandfather  of 
Fergus  MacRoy,  whose  son  Conmaic,  by  the 
famous  Queen  Meadhbh  (pronounced  Meve),  was 
progenitor  of  the  MacRannells  and  O'Farrells. 

Kilmacannon;  coitt  tine  CAtiAinn, 

MacCannon's  wood. 

Kilmahon;   C1tt  mAt$ATilt1A  MacMahon's 
church. 

Situated  in  parish  of  Drumlish ;  there  is  an 
old  grave-yard  at  this  place.  The  surname 
Mahon  is  said  to  be  derived  from  ffiAcgAmain,  a 
bear. 

kilmakinlan  ;  coitt  true  coimxetMtn, 

MacKinlan's  wood. 

KlLMOYLE ;  Cltt  1TI  AOt,  bald  church,  *>.,  church 
without  a  cross. 

This  place  is  now  Anglicised  Newtownbond. 
The  word  Newtown  enters  much  into  Anglicised 
names,  the  name  of  the  gait  or  foreigner  who 
took  possession  of  the  place  being  affixed,  thus, 
Newtownforbes,  Newtowngore,  Newtownhamil- 
ton,  Newtownstewart,  etc. 

KlLNACARROW;   C01tt  X\&  COfUVO,  wood  of 
the  weir. 


1 56 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Kilnatruan;  coiLUn  a  u-srtou^in,  little 
wood  of  the  streamlet. 

KlLNASHEE ;  C01tt  H>A  Sit),  wood  of  the 
fairies. 

KlLNASHAMOGE ;  COlUl  V\&  SATTIOJ,  wood  of 
the  sorrel. 

Kilshrewly;  COlVt  Sntlttl'Oe,  wood  by  the 
stream. 

"  People  of  the  east  and  south-east  of  Ireland 
have  a  tendency  to  modify  topographical  names 
ending  in  ar,  air,  inn,  to  ail,  ill;  thus  Loch 
Aininn,  in  Westmeath,  is  called  Loch  Ennill; 
Loch  Uair  is  called  Loch  Uail  or  Owel.  So 
sruthair  (a  stream)  is  pronounced  in  the  south 
as  well  as  in  the  east  shrule,  shrewil,  or 
shrowle? — 0*  Curry. 

Kilsallagh;  COlUl  S^VUXC,  dirty  wood;  or 
Coitt  Saiteac,  wood  of  willow-trees. 

KlLTYBEGS;    COlttue   beAJA,  little 
woods. 

Kiltyceary;  COlttce  tri  CMRtlA,  O'Carey's 
woods. 

KlLTYCLOUCH;   COlttue   CtCKMCd,  stony 

woods. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


157 


KlLTYCON;  COlUtce  COn  *  dogs'  woods. 

Kiltycreevagh;  COlLtue  CIlAOtMCA, 
branchy  woods. 

Kiltyreeher;  COlttue  niOC^tl,  woods  of 
royal  men. — O'Donovan. 

KlNARD;  C10Hn  high  head. 

KlNKILLEW ;  Ce^nn  COlLLe^VO,  head  of  wood- 
Coitl,f  genitive  coitle  and  coit,te<v6 ;  the 
latter  is  the  form  used  in  north  of  Ireland. 

KNAPAGH  ;  Cn<\p<\C,  knolly  land. 

KNAPOGE ;  Ctl  Apog,  a  knoll,  a  hillock. 

Knock;  cnoc,  a  hill. 

Pronounced  cpoc  in  Connaught. 

KNOCKAGH  ;  CriOC  e^C,  hill  of  horses. 

Knockagowna;  cnoc  4  gAtrma,  hill  of  the 
calf. 

*  Con,  found  in  surnames,  is  the  genitive  of  cu,  meaning, 
figuratively,  a  hero ;  thus  Confrey  (MacConfraoich),  hero  of 
the  heath.  Conboy  in  Irish  is  6  Conbuidhe,  descendant  of  the 
tawny  hero ;  i.e.,  cu  under  the  influence  of  tYUc  and  6  becomes 
Con:  MacConmara  (now  MacNamara),  descendant  of  the 
sea-hound,  £<?.,  a  pirate. 

tpio-o,  a  wood.  Fethard  (pio-6  Afro),  high  wood.  £io-6  an 
&t&,  Finea.  Wheery  (pO'Cfte  or  pui-ofie),  wood,  forest ;  situated 
in  King's  County.  £ioxmAc  (now  Fenagh,  County  Leitrim), 
woody.  Collough  (CottteAc),  arborous.  It  formed  part  of 
the  Termon  of  Fenagh* 


158 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


KNOCKAHAW;  C110C  A'  CAt A,  hill  of  the  battle. 
Knockaherke;  CtlOC  A'  C01ttce,hill  of  the  oats. 

Knockamoneen  ;  cnoc  A' rh  61  n in,  hill  of  the 

little  moor,  fen,  marsh. 

KNOCKAN  ;  CnOCAtl,  a  hillock. 

WeAttqian,  a  hillock;  a  place  near  Cloone, 
County  Leitrim. 

Knockanbawn;  CnOCAtl  b An,  white  hill. 
This  place-name  is  being  Anglicised  by  the 
people  of  parish  of  Clonbroney  and  neighbour- 
hood. 

KNOCKANBOY;  CnOCAn  bume,  yellow  hillock. 

Knockanean  ;  cnoc  An  em,  hill  of  the  bird 

KNOCKANURE;  Cnoc  An  1tlbA1tl,  hill  of  the 
yew  tree. 

Knockaskea;  cnoc  nA  sceice,  hill  of  the 
lone  bush. 

Knockavogue;  cnoc  A' beAgAin,  hill  of  the 
trifle, 

Knockawalkey  ;  cnoc  A'  bAtCOlj,  hill  of 
the  driving. — 0' Donovan. 

KNOCKBRACK;  Cnoc  btieAC,  speckled  hill. 

KNOCKLAGHAN  ;  Cnoc  teAUAn,  broad  hill. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


159 


Knockloughlin;  cnoc  tOCt^in^Loughlin's 
hill. 

KNOCKMARTIN;  CHOC  1tt^tlUA1H,  Martin's  hill. 

KNOCKMODDY  ;  CHOC  m&O&X),  dogs'  hill. 

KNOCKMORE;  CHOC  motl,  large  hill. 

KNOCKMOY  ;  CHOC  Hl^ge,  hill  of  the  plain. 

KNOCKRAPPERY  ;  CHOC  tlOp^Mtie,  robbers'  hill 
or  noisy  hill. 

KNOCKROE;  CHOC  tll3  <VO,  red  hill. 


ACKAN;  teACAItt,  shelving 
side  of  hill. 

Laghloony;  LeAU  ctu- 
ttA1T>e,  half  lawns. 

Lakefield;  511  mufti  nu^X), 

red  little  field. 
Lakefield  is  the  fashionable  name. — 0* Donovan. 

Lamagh  ;  le^m  AC,  abounding  in  elm. 

Lanaskea  ;  t6At1A  HA  SCOAC,  meadow  of  the 
white-thorns. 

LANESBORO' ;  t>eAt  AUA  tlAg,  mouth  of  ford 
of  flag,  cr  At  pinn,  ue.t  ford  of  the  stony 
place  of  Finn  MacCumhail,  i.e.}  Finn,  the  son  of 
Cumhail. 

160 


PLACE-NAMES. 


161 


This  Finn  who  was  a  warrior,  a  hunter,  and 
a  poet,  has  left  his  name  on  many  places  in 
Ireland  ;  he  was  not  a  mythical  being,  as  many 
think,  but  in  the  opinions  of  the  learned  O'Curry 
and  O'Donovan,  a  real  personage,  who  lived  in 
the  third  century  of  the  Christian  era,  and  was 
slain,  according  to  the  Annals,  A.D.  284.  This 
was  one  of  the  three  famous  fords  of  the  ancient 
kingdom  of  Hy-Many(11t  Ulaine),  which  stretched 
from  the  Shannon  to  Athenry,  County  Galway. 

Laragh  ;  tAIUTtCAC,  where  a  battle  was  fought; 
the  site  of  anything. 

Larkfield;  cUiaw  ^tnseCige. 

This  place-name  is  completely  Anglicised  and 
all  knowledge  of  the  former  name  forgotten.  It 
is  in  the  parish  of  Scrabby. 

LEAB  ;  teAt)t),  a  stripe  of  land. 

LECURRAGH  ;  teAU  CtmtlAC,  half-curragh. 

Ledwithstown  ;  t>Aite  Ati  teAT)i3sAi5. 

LEGAN  ;  tlAgAHI,  a  standing  stone,  a  pillar- 
stone. 

The  parish  of  Legan  is  better  known  by  this 
name  than  by  Killglass  (Citt  gt^f),*  which  was 

*"  The  vicarage  of  Aharagh,  value  £it  was  united  to  Kil- 
glass."— -Carlisle. 

L 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


the  name  of  St.  Eiche's  Church,  which  was  the 
original  Christian  church  of  the  parish.  St. 
Eiche's  feast  falls  on  5th  August. 

LEGGAGH ;  full  of  holes. 

Lehery  ;  teAt  A*  tllg,  king's  half: 

11  The  word  Righ  in  many  ancient  tracts  is 
often  applied  to  a  petty  chief  of  one  barony." 

—  Tribes  and  Customs  of  Hy- Many. 

LEITRIM  ;  t1At-T)tltl1tn,  grey  ridge. 

This  was  the  most  ancient  name  of  Tara  hill. 

Lenaboy;  t&AttA  t)Vnt)e,  yellow  holm  or  wet 
meadow. 

Lenamore;   teAtlA  mOtl,  large  swampy 
land. 

Lenaiiaun  ;  teAHACA1tt,  a  holm. 

Leanahauns  ;  t,&AnA1>oe,  wet  meadows. 

LENASKEA ;  t&AttA  YiA  SCeAC,  meadow  of  the 
whitethorns. 

LETTERGEERAGH  ;  teiU1tl  SCAOtlAC,  hillside  of 
the  sheep. 

Leitiry  derived  from  leatk,  half,  and  tirim,  dry, 
a  hill-slope  half  dry.    In  Connaught  it  de- 
notes a  spewy  hill  down  the  side  of  which  water 
trickles. — 0 'Donovan. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


163 


11  61  was  an  ancient  Irish  word  for  sheep,  and 
6imelc  (z.e.y  6i-nielg,  or  ewe-milk,)  was  the  name 
ol  the  beginning  of  Spring,  because  that  is  the 
time  the  sheep's  milk  comes."  In  Christian 
times  the  beginning  of  Spring  or  February  was 
called  tllf  na  feite  bjiip'oe,  or  the  month  of 
Brigid's  feast.  "Februarius  mensis,  the  month 
of  expiation  (because  on  the  15  th  of  this  month 
the  great  feast  of  expiation  and  purification, 
Februa,  was  held),  February ;  until  the  time  of 
the  decemvirs  the  last  month  of  the  Roman 
year,  afterwards  the  second." — SmitJis  Dict\ 

LETTERGULLION ;  teicm  CtnteAtW,  hill-side 
of  the  holly  tree. 

The  holly  was  regarded  as  the  first  of  trees, 
because  it  was  used  in  making  feirse,  or  axle- 
trees  for  chariots.  11  The  close-grained  holly, 
the  choice  of  the  wood,"  this  was  the  answer 
Gobban  Saer  made  when  asked  to  name  the 
best  wood  in  the  forest. 

Lettergonnell;  teium  CO«A1t ,*  Conail's  hill- 
side. 

*  Letterfyne  (Leicifi  £iA*a<Mn),  situated  in  parish  of  Kil- 
tubride,  County  Leitrim,  means  wild  hill-side. — O  Donovan. 
Gortletteragh  (gofu:  teictte-Ac),  field  of  the  spewy  hill- 
side.— ODonovan. 


164 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


LlONMORE  ;  t<\15in  m OR,  great  spear. 

Leinster  got  the  name  t<Mgin  from  the  intro- 
duction of  the  broad-headed  lance  by  Labhra 
Loingsech,  one  of  its  kings  from  Gaul.  The 
termination  ster  is  Danish. — Bardic  Hist.  Ir. 

LlSAGERNAL;  VlOS  *V  jetUirm,  Gerlin's  fort. 

LlSAHERTY;  UOS   A1  tt<\t)4tlU415,  Rafferty's 
fort. 

LlSAKEARY;  tlOS  A1  CeAX\tA\%,  Keary's  fort 
In  some  of  the  old  MSS.  Cairbre's  descen- 
dants are  called  Kearys,  spelled  in  Irish  OCiajtoa. 

LISAKIT  ;  VlOS  A'  CA1U,  fort  of  the  wild  cat. 

The  lios  was  common  in  the  west,  and  the  rath 
in  the  east,  of  Ireland.  Another  kind  of  fort  was 
the  dun,  which,  like  the  others,  was  circular  in 
shape  and  built  of  large  undressed  blocks  of  stone, 
without  cement.  It  had  two  walls,  the  space  be- 
tween them  sometimes  filled  with  water.  Under 
the  dun  was  often  a  beehive-shaped  lumber- 
room,  which  served  as  a  protection  against  the 
enemy.  One  of  the  greatest  of  these  stone  forts 
is  Dunangus,  in  the  Aran  Isles,  built  by  Aengus, 
son  of  Umoir,  a  Firbolg  chief,  at  the  beginning 
of  the  Christian  era.  Dunseverick,  in  Antrim, 
built  by  the  Milesians,  is  another. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


According  to  Ven.  Bede  dun  means  a  height, 
and  the  Gauls  called  an  elevated  place  a  dun ; 
hence  dunum  marks  the  termination  of  the 
names  of  many  of  the  towns  of  ancient  Gaul, 
thus  Lugdunum,  now  Lyons ;  Ceasarodunum, 
Tours;  Novidunum,  Noyan ;  Vindunum,  Mans; 
Augustidunum,  Autun;  all  built  on  elevated 
ground. 

Lisameen  ;  LeASA  mine,  smooth  forts. 
LlSANANE;  VlOS  WA  n-e^XII,  birds' fort 
LfSAWN  ;  tlOS^n,  little  fort. 

LiSANEDAN;  VlOS   AX\    e<V04iri,  fort  of  the 
brow  of  hill. 

Lisaniske;  tlOS  AW  111  SCe,  fort  of  the  water. 
Many  place-names,  into  which  esky  isk,  usk, 
etc.,  enter,  are  derived  from  uif ce,  water.  River 
Thames  (Uaiti  uif  5),  slow  water. — Bourke. 

LlSANORE;  11  OS  AT)  01  tl,  fort  of  the  gold. 

Tighernmas,  who  reigned  939  B.C.,  was  the 
first  king  to  smelt  gold.  In  his  reign  gold  mines 
were  discovered  on  the  banks  of  the  Liffy. 
Uachadan  was  his  artist,  "who  fabricated  cups 
and  goblets  of  massy  gold."  Aldergoid,  another 
of  these  early  kings,  directed  that  ollamhs  and 
doctors  should  wear  a  gold  ring.  "When 


166 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Charlemagne  founded  the  universities  of  Paris 
and  Pavia  in  the  eighth  century,  John  Scott 
and  Claude  Clement,  both  Irishmen,  introduced 
the  biretrum,  or  doctor's  cap,  for  the  first  time 
on  the  continent,  and  the  gold  ring  as  insignia 
of  doctors." — (JHalloran. 

All  the  gold  ornaments  preserved  in  the  Royal 
Irish  Academy  prove  that  Ireland  was  formerly 
rich  in  gold. 

11  An  island  rich,  exhaustless  is  her  store 
Of  veiny  silver  and  of  golden  ore." 

LlSANURE;  t10S  AW  1tlt)A1tl,  fort  of  the  yew  tree. 
The  yew  ranked  among  the  chief  trees.  The 
Druids  regarded  it  as  sacred,  and  used  it  in 
their  ceremonies.  Of  its  timber,  which  was 
very  plentiful,  vessels  were  made ;  it  was  also 
much  used  in  the  manufacture  of  furniture.  Red 
yew  looked  well  in  carving  and  ornamental 
work.  "  Upon  the  arches  of  the  white-walled 
church  are  clusters  of  rosy  grapes  carved  from 
ancient  yew."  The  church  mentioned  here  was 
the  Cathedral  of  Armagh,  in  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury.— Joyce. 

LlSANURLAND  ;  t10S  Atl  tmLdltltie,  fort  of  the 
spear. 

This  was  a  spear  with  a  curved  blade,  used  by 
the  Firbolgs,    Laighin  (which  gave  Leinster  its 


COUNTY  LONGFORD, 


name)  is  a  flat,  sharp-pointed  spear;  laigkinisthe 
diminutive  of  /cfo^,another  form  of  which  is  Ididhe 
(pronounced  loy\  used  in  cultivating  the  soil. 

Lisaquill;  t10S  A  CU11X,  fort  of  the  hazel. 
The  Brehon  Laws  in  classifying  trees  places 
the  hazel  after  the  oak,  which  was  regarded  as 
the  first  of  trees.    The  Irish  Druids  made  use 
of  the  hazel  in  their  ceremonies.    Of  the  wood 
much  use  was  made  in  building  wicker-houses, 
while  its  fruit  was  used  as  an  article  of  food. 
A  dish  of  hazel-nuts  was  highly  esteemed.  St. 
Patrick  was  once  given  a  present  of  "yellow- 
headed  nuts  and  golden-yellow  apples."   One  of 
the  blessings  which  fell  on  the  country  during 
the  reign  of  a  good  king  was  a  plentiful  harvest 
of  hazel  nuts,  and  that  blessing  fell  on  Erinn 
during  the  reign  of  Cormac  Mac  Airt* 
"tie  brm  CoprriAic  ttlic  Ai|\c 
t)i  An  fAegAt  50  h-Aebinn  aic; 
t)i  riAOi  5-cno       5 ac  crtAebin 
Aguf  nAOi  b-pucit>  c^Aebin  Aip  jac  ftAic" 

("  During  the  reign  of  Corbmac  Mac  Art 
The  world  was  delightful  and  happy  3 
Nine  nuts  grew  on  each  twig, 
And  nine  score  twigs  on  each  rod.") 

*  Cormac,  or,  more  correctly,  Corbmac,  was  the  grandson 
of  Conn  of  the  Hundred  Fights,  and  lived  about  the  third  cen- 
tury of  the  Christian  era. 


i68 


PLACE  NAMES  OF  THE 


M  The  ancient  Irish  poets  believed  that  there 
were  fountains  at  the  head  of  the  chief  rivers  in 
Ireland,  over  each  of  which  grew  nine  hazels, 
that  those  hazels  produced  at  certain  times 
beautiful  red  nuts  which  fell  on  the  surface  of 
the  water,  and  that  the  salmon  of  the  rivers 
came  up  and  eat  them,  and  the  eating  of  them 
was  the  cause  of  the  red  spots  on  the  salmon's 
belly ;  that  whoever  could  catch  and  eat  one 
of  these  salmon  would  be  endued  with  the 
sublimest  poetic  intellect.  Hence  we  often  meet 
such  phrases  as  these  in  ancient  poems :  i  Had 
I  the  nut  of  science';  '  Had  I  eaten  of  the  salmon 
of  knowledge.'" — Cor.  Gloss. 

LlSARD  ;  tlOS  AtVO,  high  fort. 

LlSARDOWLlNG ;  tlOS  AtVO  At)tA,  fort  of  the 
height  of  the  orchard. — Four  Masters. 

"In  1377  John  O'Farrell,  Lord  of  Anghaile, 
erected  the  castle  of  Lisardowling. 

"In  1383  John  O'Farrell  died  at  Lisardowling 
and  was  interred  in  Abbeylara." — Four  Masters. 

LISATINNE;  tlOS  A'  UOntlAlj,  fort  of  the 
mound. 

LISAWARRIFF;  L10S  A'  tT1ATLt)tA,  fort  of  the 
murder. 

LlSAWLEY;  tlOS  AttltAOIt),  Awley's  fort. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD.  1 69 

Lisbeg  ;  t10S  t)&&5,  small  fort. 

LlSBRACK;  VlOS  tDtieAC,  speckled  fort. 

This  was  the  former  name  of  Newtownforbes. 

LlSCAHlLL;  t10S  CAtAlt,  Cahill's  fort. 

LlSCORMACK;  t10S  CORt>rnA1C,  Cormac's  fort. 

LlSDUFF  ;  t10S  T)tlt),  black  fort. 

LlSFERRIDYBAWN  ;    tlOS    peARDAlg  t)At1, 
white  Ferdy's  fort. — (J Donovan. 

LlSGLASSlCK ;  t10S  gtASOg,  fort  of  the  water- 
wagtails. 

LlSLEA;  tlOS  tl AIT,  grey  fort. 

LlSLUM  ;  VlOS  tOtn,  bare  fort. 

LlSMAGAWLEY;    Vl  O  S    ttl  1  C   4171 &\,%  <\T)  A, 
MacCawley's  fort. 

LlSMAGOONEEN ;  L10S  114  5-COinitt,  fort  of 
the  rabbits. 

6  Coinin  is  a  common  surname;  in  places  it  is 
Anglicised. 

LlSMICMANUS;  tlOS  rh  1  c  niApuis, 
MacManus'  fort. 

LlSMICMURROUGH  ;   tlOS    ttl  1  C    HI  11  tlC A*dA, 
MacMurrough's  fort,  or  Murphy's  fort, 

LlSMORE  ;  VlOS  mOR,  large  fort. 


170 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


LlSNABO;  tlOS  VIA  b6,  fort  of  the  cow. 

LlSNACREEVY;  VlOS  tl  A  CTtAObe,  branchy  fort. 

LlSNACUSH;  t10S  tt<X  C01S,  fort  of  the  trunk  of 
tree. 

LlSNAGREE;  I10S  VIA  S-CtttUt),  fort  of  the  cattle. 
"Tli  fioibe  t>o  c\\ox)  <\cc  Aen  bo,"  i.e.,  "he 
had  no  cattle  but  one  cow."  "  The  word  cjwo, 
here  used  signifying  cattle,  is  the  origin  of  the 
word  Cro>  Croo  or  Croy%  in  our  old  laws  denoting 
fine,  mulct  or  satisfaction  for  murder  or  other 
crimes,  such  fines  having  anciently  been  paid  in 
cattle."— Dr.  Todd. 

LlSNAGRlSH;  t10S  WA  JUIS,  fort  of  the  embers. 

LlSNAHANATHEN  ;  tlOSAC  ATI  etTOAItt,  fort  of 
the  brow  of  hill. — O1  Donovan. 

Lisnahelta;  t10S  WA  tl-ei tee,  fort  of  the  doe. 
w  Ocuf  \yo  m^\(b<^6  ye  p\\  *oej;  *o'ib  tl^igittig  Ann 
beof.  Cau  rhoige  Stecc  Afi  byiu  At a  "Oeipg,  45 
A\Xz  n<\  h-6ltci,  6f  bheotAc  n<\  beiage,  Ainm 
m  caua  pn." — Annals  of  Loch  Ce.  "And  there 
were  sixteen  men  of  the  O'Reilly  family  killed 
there  also.  This  was  the  Battle  of  Magh  Slecht, 
on  the  brink  of  Ath  Dearg  (the  Red  Ford),  at 
Alt-na-h-Eillti  (the  Hill  of  the  Doe),  over  Bealach 
na  Beithige  (the  road  of  the  birch)."—  0' Curry. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


171 


LlSNALAPPA;  t10S  H4  teAt)tA,  fort  of  the 
bed  (grave). 

This  fort  is  in  the  townland  of  Mullanroe, 
parish  of  Scrabby.  In  ancient  times  some  old 
warrior  was  buried  here,  and  hence  the  name.  In 
these  days  people  were  sometimes  buried  stand- 
ing. When  Cuchullain  was  mortally  wounded 
at  the  battle  of  Muirtheimnhe,  he  ordered  his 
charioteer  to  place  his  body  standing  against  a 
neighbouring  corraig^  or  rock,  his  sword  in  his 
hand,  his  shield  raised  up,  and  his  two  spears  by 
his  left  side.  The  hero,  Eoghan,  killed  at  the 
battle  of  Lena,  was  buried  erect,  his  lance  by 
his  shoulder,  his  helmet  on  his  head,  his  coat  of 
mail  on  his  body,  and  his  sword  in  his  hand. 
Circular  cairns  of  earth  and  stone  were  raised 
over  these  graves.  "  Locus  lapidibus  obruendus 
ubi  fanguis  humanus  sparsus  est.'' 

LlSNAMUCK;  t10S  t14  mUC,  fort  of  the  pigs. 

LlSNANAGH  ;  t10S  tlA  11-eAC,  fort  of  the  troops, 
cavalry ;  or  it  might  mean  fort  of  the  appari- 
tion.— T.  Concannon. 

Lisnanane;  tios  wa  n-e^n,  fort  of  the 
birds. 

LlSNAVADDY;  L10S  ViA  ttld'OA'O,  fort  of  the 
dogs. 


172 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


LlSRATlGAN ;  VlOS  tteACU4C-A1tl,  Ratigan's  fort. 
This  place  is  being  Anglicised  "  Tinker  Hill." 

LlSRYAN  ;  tlOS  ft1Ain,  Ryan's  fort. 

LlSROE;  tlOS  nil  AX),  red  fort. 

LlSTACUM;  tlOS  XlACOVftA,  St.  Dachoma's  fort. 

Listobet;  t/IOS   U10b6lT),  Theobald's  fort. 

LlSTRAHEE;  UOS  ZK&t  40XM,  Hugh's  fort 

LlSTRlENAGH ;  t1  OS  T)nA15tt  e&C, blackthorn  fort. 
T)e<\l5  is  another  word  for  thorn  and  is  found 
in  the  place-name  Dalkey,  which  is  an  Irish- 
Danish  word  made  up  of  the  Irish  tDe^tg,  and 
the  Danish  "ey."  T)eAt5irmif,  i.e.,  thorn  island, 
is  the  Irish  name  of  the  place. 

LlVERAUN  ;  tlOeAtlAll,  a  leveret. 

The  ordinary  Irish  word  for  a  hare  is  geirr- 
fhiadh,  which  literally  means  a  short  deer.  Pata 
is  another  term  for  a  hare,  and  is  derived  from 
poi>  the  foot,  and  t6,  silently,  because  silently 
does  the  hare  tread  the  ground. — Cor.  Gloss. 

LONGFIELD;  50UC  pxVOA. 

Longford;   totlgpORU  tn  £eAtl$A1t,  the 
camp  or  fortress  of  O'Farrell 

The  military  barracks  covers  the  site  of  this 
fortress. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


173 


Longford  formerly  formed  part  of  the  royal 
province  of  Meath,  which  was  formed  by  Tuathal 
Teachtmar  about  the  year  85  of  our  era,  and 
called  peAjiAnn  bui^t)  R15  eijiearm,  or  mensal 
land  of  the  King  of  Erinn. 

Archdall  derives  this  name  from  At  pvoA, 
the  long  ford,  in  reference  to  the  River 
Camline,  but  Archdall  quotes  no  authority,  and 
was,  according  to  O'Donovan,  a  bad  authority 
himself.  If  Longford  got  its  name  from  the 
ford  in  the  Camline,  then  its  present  Anglicised 
name  is  correct.  "  In  1430  Eoghan  O'Neill,  ac- 
companied by  the  chiefs  of  his  province,  marched 
with  a  great  army  into  Anghaile.  He  went  first 
to  Sean-Longphort  and  from  that  to  Coillsallach 
where  he  resided  for  some  time." — Four  Masters. 

This  quotation,  taken  from  the  Masters \  shows 
its  correct  spelling  and  meaning. 

Longford,  as  a  townland,  contained  three  car- 
trons  of  land  south  of  the  River  Camline.  From 
this  it  is  seen  that  the  part  of  the  town  north 
of  the  Camline  Bridge  cannot  correctly  be  called 
Longford. 

Longford  Bridge  ;  T)tloiCeA>o  tongptntiu.* 
Drogheda  got  its  name  from  the  bridge  over 
the  Boyne — *OpoiceA-o-^dcA. 

*  ton$po|ic,  an  inferior  kind  of  fortress  or  castle.  -  J our  no* 
of  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries. 


174 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Loughan  ;  tOCdtl,  a  pond. 

But  tocAn  chaff :  Cloonloghan  (CUiaw-locAiri), 
field  of  chaff. 

Loughahurry;  toC  A  CUftttAlj,  lake  of  the 
curragh. 

LOUGHANCRAG;  tOCAtl  CRA1£;e,pond  of  the  crag. 
LOUGH ANEUGE;  tOCAtt  eige,  pond  of  death. 

LOUGHANAPEAST  ;   tOCAtt  tIA  t>peiSU,  pond  of 
the  worms. 

Loughanapeiste  (tocan  n<x  peifce),  or  Lake  of 
the  serpent,  was  the  ancient  name  of  Fenagh 
Loch,  County  Leitrim.  Fenagh  itself  was  called 
Cnoc-n<vpiog,  or  Hill  of  the  kings. 

LOUGHBANNOW;  toC  t)A11t),lake  of  the  sucking 
pigs. 

LOUGHDURCAN;  toC  T)tlAttCA1t1,  Durkan's  lake. 

LOUGH  GOWNA ;  toC  SAttiriA,  lake  of  calf. 

This  lake  got  its  name  from  a  well  in  the 
townland  of  Rathbracken  called  Uobaji  gariina, 
which  is  one  of  the  sources  from  which  the  lake 
gets  its  supply  of  water.  Tradition  gives  the 
lake  and  the  well  a  name  the  origin  of  which  I 
consider  too  absurd  to  be  inserted  here.  It  is 
said  that  Loch  Gamhna  covers  an  area  of  about 
1,200  acres. 


tOC  nit),  (Lough  Ree). 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


175 


LOUGHILL ;  teAth  COltt,  elm  wood. 

LOUGHMURLE;  toC  tritntttlje,  lake  of  the 
marsh. 

LOUGHNAGOWER  ;  tOC  HA  tt-5At)A1l,  lake  of 
the  goats. 

LOUGHREE;  tOC  Hit),  Ribh's  Lough.— 0' Donovan. 
In  the  reign  of  Lughaidh,  who  was  the  son  of 
Clothra,  who  lived  about  the  first  century  of  the 
Christian  era,  the  lakes  Neagh  and  Ree  began 
to  make  their  appearance,  the  one  emptied  itself 
into  the  Bann,  the  other  into  the  Shannon. 
Ribh  is  probably  derived  from  Rheba,  the  name 
of  a  place  (mentioned  on  Ptolmy's  Map)  near 
Loughree.— Jour,  of  Royal  Soc.  of  Antiqr. 

LOUGHSEEDAN  ;  tOC  SeiT)eAir),  squally  lough. 

LOUGHSLANE  ;  tOC  StAltie,  Slants  lough. 

LURGAN  ;  tUR^AN,  leg-shaped. 

This  place  is  now  Anglicised  Spring-pork. 

LUROCKSFIELD  ;  ACAt)  UltlAlg. 

Lyneen  ;  tAlgnin,  little  Leinster. 
A  fancy  name. — 0' Donovan. 
Leinster  was  anciently  called  Cuige  Laighean, 
or  the  Province  of  Spears. 


John  O'Donovan  in  1837, 
Father  Farrelly,  then  Parish  Priest  of  Ard- 
agh,  stated  that  Killenlastragh  was  the  place 
where,  according  to  tradition,  St.  Lupait  threw 
the  gleaming  embers  from  her  bosom.  Some 
writers  translate  Meeltenagh  "harmless  fire,"  and 
state  that  this  was  the  place  where  the  story  of 
the  gleaming  embers  originated.  But  the  tradi- 
tion of  the  people  of  Ardagh,  told  by  Father 
Farrelly  in  the  year  1837,  cannot  be  disregarded. 

Meelick  ;  mitecc,  insulated  piece  of  land. 

Melkernagh  ;  miOtCe^R11A15,  Carney's  hill. 

MlNARD  ;  tmntl  AtlT),  high  shrubbery. 

176 


PLACE-NAMES. 


177 


MOATFARRELL ;  tTlOUA  tJI  JpeAft$Alt. 

Moat-Farrell  was  the  place  where  the  kings 
of  Anghaile  were  formerly  inaugurated.  On 
an  appointed  day  the  newly-elected  chief  rode 
a  richly  caprisoned  charger  to  the  place  of 
inauguration.  There,  surrounded  by  the  sub- 
chiefs,  bishops,  abbots,  poets,  brehons,  etc.,  the 
hereditary  ollamh  read  aloud  the  law  and  the 
ancient  customs,  which  the  elected  swore  to 
observe  and  to  rule  his  people  justly.  A  wand 
straight  and  white  was  then  placed  in  the  hand 
of  the  newly-elected,  standing  on  the  inaugural 
stone.  The  straightness  of  the  wand  was  to 
him  a  sign  that  his  public  conduct  should  be 
straight  or  just ;  while  its  whiteness  told  him 
that  it  should  be  without  stain.  With  this  wand 
in  his  hand,  he  turned  three  times  from  right 
to  left,  and  three  times  from  left  to  right,  in 
honour  of  the  Holy  Trinity.  Then,  as  a  sign  of 
submission,  the  Chief  Marshal  put  a  sandal  on 
his  foot.  Beginning  with  the  senior  all  in  turn 
pronounced  his  surname  loudly,  and  this  ended 
the  ceremony.  The  horse  and  trappings,  and 
royal  robes,  according  to  custom,  became  the 
property  of  the  Chief  Marshal. 

O'Farrell,  sometimes  written  6  pijigit  (and 
now  Anglicised  Freel,  without  the  prefix  O), 
was  a  common  name  in  Tirconnell.  M 


i78 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Moatavalley;  ttlOUA  At!  t)6AtA1§,  moat  by 
the  road. 

Moanbeg  ;  mOin  t>6A5,  small  bog, 

MOANARD  ;  mOm  ATIT),  high  bog. 

Moanduff  ;  tttOW  TWt),  black  bog 

MOANMORE;  mOm  m Otl,  large  bog. 

Moheraveen  ;  m0tA1R6  rhltl,  smooth  plain. 

Molly;  motAlfte,  brows  of  hill. 

MOLLYGLASS;  ttlOtAttte      AS  A,  green  brows. 

MOLLYROE;  tnotAI'Oe  tttUVOA,  red  brows. 

Monabull  ;  mOm  tl  A  DpoUl,  bog  of  the  holes. 

MONADARAGH ;  mOm  t1AT)ARAC,  bog  of  the  oaks. 

MONASCALLAGHAN ;  mOltl  eASA  CeAttACAW, 
bog  of  Callaghan's  cataract. 

Essaun  (6<\f  <in),  little  cataract.  The  Salmon 
Leap  at  Ballyshannon  was  formerly  called  Assa- 
roe  (eaf-Ao'o-tltiAi'o),  or  the  Cataract  of  Red 
Hugh.  This  Hugh  was  high  king  whose 
daughter,  Macha,  with  her  66  mum,  or  neck 
jewel,  marked  out  the  ground  on  which  was 
raised  the  great  fortress  of  Emain,  about  330  B.C. 
Emain  (derived  from  66  mum),  by  dropping  the 
a  of  the  article  and  aspirating  the  m,  An  Emain, 
becomes  n-Emkain}  i.e.}  Navan,  the  name  by 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


179 


which  the  great  fortress  is  now  known.  Scardan 
(ScAjroAn),  in  parish  of  Kiltubride  (C1VI  UiobjiAfo, 
i.e.,  Church  of  the  Well),  County  Leitrim,  means 
a  cascade. — Oy  Donovan. 

Moneen  ;  mOltlin,  small  bog. 

MONEYHOOLIVAN  ;  mOltl  til  StHtteAt)<AlH, 
Sullivan's  bog. 

SuAle&bhn  is  derived  from  ftiit,  eye,  and 
'OiibAn,  dark ;  Sullivan  then  means  dark-eyed, 
Canavan,  derived  from  ce<vnn,  head,  and  "Cuban, 
means  dark  head  or  dark-haired.  Donovan,  i.e., 
T)onn4b<Mr>,  is  derived  from  T>orm,  brown,  and 
•cuban ;  Donovan,  then,  means  dark-brown  com- 
plexion.— Tongue  of  the  Gael. 

MONEYFODA  ;  ttltntie  £AT)A,  long  shrubbery. 

MONEYLAGGAN  ;  mOttAlt)  tAgAltl,  hollow  bog. 

MONKSTOWN  ;  t)Alte  X\A  mAtlAC. 

Manach  is  a  Gaelicised  form  of  the  Latin 
monachus.  Ctoc-bAite-r)4-m<MiAc  was  the  former 
name  of  Clough,  in  the  parish  of  Abbeylara, 
because  there  was  a  monastery  here,  a  branch 
house  of  the  monastery  in  Abbeylara,  to  which 
it  paid  yearly  tithes  of  corn  value  forty  shillings. 

MOSTRIM ;  meAtUS  OUnm,  fertile  ridge. 

This  place-name  is  seldom  seen  except  in 
Church  Records.    The  place  is  better  known  by 


i8o 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


the  name  Edgeworthstown,  after  the  Edgeworth 
family,  who  have  been  living  here  for  the  past  two 
or  three  hundred  years.  Maria  Edgeworth,  a  mem- 
ber of  this  family,  wrotewell  in  the  English  tongue- 
About  twenty  perches  to  the  west  of  the 
ruins  of  the  old  Abbey  (about  which  I  could 
gather  nothing),  is  St.  Bearach's  (Barry)  holy 
well,  now  unknown  and  unheeded.  He  was  the 
same  who  lived  at  Tarmonbarry.  St.  Bearach 
was  probably  the  patron  saint  of  Meathustruim. 
This  parish  is  now  (I  think)  under  the  tutelage 
of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  feast  15th  August. 
Dr.  Healy  tells  us  that  every  diocesan  patron 
and  almost  every  parochial  saint  had  his  holy 
well,  of  which  the  memory  is  now  sometimes 
lost.  I  believe  St.  Barry  and  his  holy  fountain 
no  longer  hold  a  place  in  the  memory  of  the 
people  of  Mostrim.  Perhaps  some  pious  person 
reading  this  might  clear  away  the  choking  weeds 
and  grass  and  place  beside  the  well  some  me- 
mento of  St.  Barry.  This  simple  act  would 
revive  some  knowledge  of  the  saint  and  help  to 
perpetuate  his  memory,  unhappily  sinking  into 
oblivion.  It  will  be  seen  in  another  part  of  this 
little  work,  what  the  late  Mr.  Fagan,  of  Lisma- 
caffrey,  did  out  of  veneration  for  St.  Fintain  and 
his  holy  fountain.  *6eif  An  Ajro-ftioj;  50  ftAib 
Anam  ConcobAip  aji  feA^nApoppAitieAccA.  Amen. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


181 


Mount  Davis  ;  cttlAltl  CtieArh,  lawn  of  wild 
garlic. 

MOY ;  mA§,  a  plain. 
MOYBEG ;  m&£  t)et!5,  little  plain. 
Moybrackery  ;  tTlAg  t)tieACtlA1$e,  speckled 
plain. 

This  was  the  ancient  name  of  Street. 

"Sraid  (Street)  of  Maghbreacraighe  was  burned 
by  the  Baron  of  Delvin,  both  Church  and  houses 
and  many  preying  and  burning  committed  be- 
twixt them,  to  wit  the  Nugents  and  Herberts  in 
1465." — Four  Masters. 

"  The  castle  of  Maghbreacraighe  stood  at  the 
village  of  Street  and  was  broken  by  6  Fearghail 
(O'Farrell),  and  MacHerbert's  son  killed  455." 

This  parish  should  bear  a  name  which  would 
perpetuate  the  memory  of  St.  Fintain,  who  was 
probably  the  founder  of  it. 

MOYDARAGH  ;  tHAj  T)AtlAC,  field  of  oaks. 

MOYDOW ;  mA<5  TMfhA,  plain  of  mound. 

Cill-Modhint  (St.  Modhint's  Church)  was  the 
ancient  name  of  Moydow.  St.  Modhint  died 
jgi,  his  feast  falls  on  12th  February.  Clann 
Auliffe  O'Fearghail  had  a  castle  at  Moydow, 
they  owned  also  the  churches  of  Moydow, 
and  Kilashee  and  Abbeydearg.    St.  Modhint's 


182 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Church  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  year  1155. 
"l  P^t1  00  "ourha  Oichiioen  aic  a  put  111  chfiof 
AN>nV  "and  westward  to  the  mound  of 
Ochiden,a  place  where  there  is  a  celebrated  cross." 
"This  passage  settles  the  signification  of  the 
word  t)UTTi<x,  which  enters  into  the  composition 
of  many  topographical  names  in  Ireland,  and 
which  O'Brien,  and  after  him,  O'Reilly,  explain  a 
'place  of  gaming.'  Its  true  meaning  is  a  mound, 
a  tumulus." — Nennius,  edited  by  Dr.  Todd. 

MOYGH  ;  tTlAg,  a  plain. 

MOYGLASS  ;  triAg  5LAS,  green  plain. 

MOYNE ;  ttlA1$111,  little  plain. 

Moyrath;  RAite. 

Muckinagh  ;  mtnce<\nAC,a  placewhere  pigs  feed. 
MUCKINISH ;  mtlC  1111S,  hog's  island. 
MULLABAWN ;  muttAC  tX&ll,  white  summit. 
MULLACLAR ;  muttAC  CtAlft,  top  of  the  plain. 
MULLAGH  ;  mtltlAC,  a  summit. 
MULLAHAWORNEEN  ;  ttltlttAC  A'  1111111111111,  hill 

of  the  lover. 

MULLAGHNASHEE ;    ItttlUAC   HA  SVOe,  hill  of 
the  fairies. 

MULLALOGHER ;  ttltlttAC  UlACtt  AC,  sedgy  height. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


183 


MULLANROE  ;  tYltnUeAtiri  tttlAt),  red  mill. 
Uewe  irUobouiri  was  the  former  name  of  this 
townland  ;  it  means  Muldoon's  fire.  Part  of 
this  townland,  which  is  large,  was  called  Cloon- 
erla  (CtuAin-iAfita),  because  it  belonged  to  one 
of  the  Nugents  who  lived  in  Aughnagarron,  be- 
low Thomas  R.  Reilly's.  He  built  on  a  bank  of 
good  land  and  the  avenue  leading  to  his  place 
is  plainly  visible.  The  Nugents  got  large  pos- 
sessions in  Longford  in  the  reigns  of  Elizabeth 
and  Mary. 

MULLAGHAWOCKRISH  ;  ttttlttAC  A'  tilACtltlAIS, 
hill  of  the  amusement;  or  TtluttAc  ah  Thacrmif, 
\\  taking  the  place  of  n,  as  in  the  case  of  cj\oc 
for  cnoc. — T.  Concannon. 

This  hill  is  at  Henry  Rodger's,  in  the  town- 
land  of  Derrycassan,  on  the  shores  of  Loch 
Gowna.  It  was  formerly  a  place  where  the 
youth  assembled  for  amusement. 

"And  many  a  gambol  frolicked  o'er  the  ground, 
And  sleights  of  art  and  feats  of  strength  went 
round." 

When  Dopping,  the  landlord,  took  possession 
of  Derrycassan  and  its  neighbourhood,  this  plea- 
sure ground  became  deserted,  and  the  amuse- 
ments there  a  thing  of  the  past.    One  would 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


imagine  Goldsmith  was  describing  this  place 

when  he  wrote  : — 
"  Sweet  smiling  village,  loveliest  of  the  lawn, 
Thy  sports  are  fled  and  all  thy  charms  withdrawn ; 
Amidst  thy  bowers  the  tyrant's  hand  is  seen, 
And  desolation  saddens  all  thy  green !" 

Mullaworna;  mtlttAC  ThOltine,  Moran's 
hill. — O  Donovan. 

MULLANALACTA ;  tTMtlAC  HA  teACUA,  high 
ground  of  the  monuments. 

"  Leacht)  cognate  with  the  Latin  lectuSy  means 
a  honorary  monument  of  any  kind,  generally  a 
heap  of  stones." — Cf  Donovan. 

A  leacht  marked  the  graves  of  distinguished 
foreigners,  also  the  graves  of  those  who  died  by 
the  sword.  Great  warriors  were  buried  erect 
that  they  might  fight,  even  in  death,  against 
their  enemies. 

This  was  the  Druidical  burial  ceremony: — 
The  corpse  being  placed  in  the  grave,  the  Chief 
Seanchuidhe  read  aloud  the  pedigree  of  the 
deceased  down  to  its  source,  then  the  Chief 
Bard,  or  Ard-fileadh  sang  a  caoine,  the  words 
of  which  told  of  the  bravery,  honour,  and  hospi- 
tality of  the  deceased.  A  cry  was  then  raised 
by  all  present,  which  terminated  with  each  one 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


185 


casting  a  stone  over  the  grave.  The  whole 
burial  ceremony  was  told  in  these  words  :"*Oo 
jiirme  a  toi  Agtif  a  teacc,"  i.e.,  "  they  recited  his 
apotheosis  and  raised  his  leacht." — O'Halloran. 

MULLANGEE;    mtntteAtltl   gAOICe*  a  wind 
mill. 

This  place  is  convenient  to  Granard. 

"  Gerald  O'Farrell  of  Leitrim  possessed  many 
cartrons  along  with  the  windmill  juxta  Gran- 
ard."— Inquisitions  of  Elizabeth. 


*5A0icin,  the  diminutive  form  of  540c,  enters  into  surnames 
and  is  Anglicised  Wyndham. 


EWTOWN;  b^ite  nil  AT). 


Newtownbond;  C1tt 
tTI  AOt,  bald  church,  or  church 
without  a  cross. 

Newtowncashel  ;  C  O  tl 
HA  mirhCA,  round  hill  of 
the  cauldron. 


Newtownforbes  (sometimes  Castle  Forbes)  ; 
VlOS  t)1ieAC,  speckled  fort. 

"This  name  (MacFirbhisigh),  however,  has 
been  modernised  to  Forbes  and  the  green  mound 
that  marks  the  site  of  the  Castle  of  the  old 
seanachie  clan  is  known  as  *  Castle  Forbes.'" 

This  quotation  carries  our  minds  and  imagi- 
nations away  to  another  castle  (now  a  heap  of 
debris)  of  the  same  name  near  Iniscrone,  in 
County  Sligo.    This  castle  was  built  by  the 
186 


PLACE-NAMES. 


MacFirbhisigh  in  1 560,  in  the  townland  of 
Leacan  (which  means  shelving  hill-side),  on  the 
banks  of  the  River  Muaidh  (now  Moy). 

From  Dathi,  the  last  pagan  monarch  of  Erinn, 
who,according  to  O'Curry,  was  killed  in427A.D.,at 
the  foot  of  the  Alps,  were  descended  the  learned 
family  of  the  MacFirbhisigh,  who  were  profes- 
sional and  hereditary  historians,  genealogists, 
bards,  and  seanachies  to  the  princes  of  Con- 
naught. 

By  a  member  of  this  family,  Gilla  Isa  Mor 
MacFirbhisigh,  was  compiled,  in  1416,  the  great 
Book  of  Lecan  (an  extract  from  which,  given  to- 
wards the  end  of  this  book,  explains  the  origin 
and  antiquity  of  the  place-name  Inny  [River]). 
The  Book  is  now  in  the  library  of  the  Royal 
Irish  Academy.  The  Chronicum  Scotorum  (com- 
menced in  Gal  way  in  1650),  and  the  Book  of 
Genealogies*  can  claim  for  their  author,  Dubhal- 
tach,  or  Dudley,  the  last,  and  probably  the 
greatest,  of  the  learned  family  of  the  Mac- 
Firbhisigh. 

The  story  of  the  death  of  Dubhaltach  Mac- 
Firbhisigh is  sad  to  narrate.    In  the  year  1670, 

*<A5uf  cujAfo  fst11^116  An  teAOAift  ceu-onA  -oo  riio|iti5A-6 
gtoijie  *Oe  <A5*»r  *oo  $eunAiii  iuit  *oo  cac  1  ccoircinne,"  ue,f  And 
the  cause  of  writing  the  same  book  is  to  increase  the  glory  of 
God  and  to  give  knowledge  to  all  men  in  general. 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


in  the  very  heat  of  the  penal  laws,  the  famous 
old  scholar  was  travelling  to  Dublin  to  visit 
Robert,  the  son  of  Sir  James  Ware.  At  the  vil- 
lage of  Dunflin,  in  the  parish  of  Skreen,*  County 
Sligo,  he  took  lodgings  for  the  night.  While 
sitting  in  his  room  a  man  named  Crofton  en- 
tered the  shop  and  began  to  take  liberties  with 
a  young  female  behind  the  counter.  She,  to 
check  his  freedom,  drew  his  attention  to  the 
old  man  in  the  next  room,  whereupon  Crofton 
snatched  a  knife  from  the  counter  and,  rushing 
into  the  room,  plunged  it  into  the  heart  of 
MacFirbhisigh.  "  Thus  at  the  hand  of  a  wanton 
assassin  ended  the  life  of  the  last  of  the  regularly 
educated  and  most  accomplished  masters  of  the 
history,  antiquities  and  laws  and  language  of 
ancient  Erinn." — 0' Curry. 

But  to  return  to  Castle  Forbes  of  Lecan 
MicFirbhisigh.  It  was  knocked  down  many 
years  ago  by  an  "improving"  landlord,  and  a 
mound  of  rubbish  is  all  that  now  remains  to 
mark  the  spot  where  once  stood  the  castle  of 
Clan  MacFirbhisigh,  the  home  of  native  wit, 
worth  and  learning. — Smyth. 

*  Skreen  means  a  shrine;  thus  Tullynascreen  (CutAij;  tia 
Serine),  in  parish  of  Killenummery  (CiUl  An  ummAtfie,  i.e.f 
Church  of  the  ridge),  County  Leitrim,  means  holm  of  the 
shrine. — &  Donovan. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


189 


NOUGHAVEL  ;  ntlAt)  COttgtKMt,  new  habitation. 

Congbhail  is  derived  from  con>  together,  and 
bailey  a  home.  Nuadhcongbhail  was  the  ancient 
name  of  the  town  of  Navan ;  there  was  also 
a  place  of  this  name  in  Westmeath,  on  the 
borders  of  Longford.  St.  Fachtna,  of  whom 
nothing  is  now  remembered,  was  patron.  The 
Nuadhcongbhail  in  County  Longford  is  situated 
on  the  shores  of  Loch  Ribh  (Ree). 


rity,  and  is  said  to  be  destructive  on  bees.  The 
yew  tree  was  formerly  very  plentiful  and  has 
given  to  many  places  its  name, 


The  archer's  destructive 
long  bow  was  made  from 
yew  wood.  The  yew  takes 
a  long  time  to  come  to  matu- 


wood. 


ARKA;  pAlttCe,  pasture 
fields. 

P  ARK  AROWLEY;  pAltlC 
til  UOtlAin,  Rowleys  field. 

Parkaleen  ;  pAlftC  A  tin,* 
flax  field. 


Parkeen  ;  pAIRCItl,  little  pasture  field. 

PARKNAGRANN  ;  pA1RC  HA  5-CRAtin,  pasture 
of  the  trees. 

Pallas  ;  ATI  pAtAS,  a  palace,  a  fairy  place. 
PALLASMORE  ;  pAtAS  in6ll,  large  palace. 


*  From  Uon,  fiax,  comes  teme,  a  linen  garment;  a  shirt. 


190 


PLACE-NAMES* 


Portanure;  potlU  4t1  1tlt)A1tl,  bank  of  the 
yew  tree. 

lubati  is  derived  from  eu,  good,  and  barry  the 
top,  z>.,  good  or  evergreen  top. 

Powlas;  pSl&S. 

This  is  a  fancy  name  given  to  the  townland 
of  Moorhill  by  Parson  Bond. — 0 'Donovan. 

Prospect  ;  UOb^tt,  a  well. 

This  place  is  near  Bunlaghy. 

PRUCKLISH;  btlOC  L<d1Se,  badger's  warren. 

From  bjioc,  a  badger,  is  derived  the  surname? 
Brogan  (bpo^Ain). 

PULLAGH  ;  pottAC,  full  of  holes. 
PULLABOY ;  poULd  btH'be,  yellow  holes. 

PULLAGHDOOEY  ;  pott  A'  TMbAIT),  hole  of  the 
black  colouring  stuff. 

This  place  got  its  name  from  a  black  sub- 
stance found  down  deep  in  bogholes,  and  which 
was  used  for  dying  purposes.  It  produced  a 
dull  black  colour  which  was  improved  by  a  mix- 
ture of  oak.  Pullaness  (pott  <\n  e^f  a,  hole  or 
pond  of  the  Cascade),  between  Rathmore  and 
Aughnacliff,  in  parish  of  Columcille. 


192 


PLACE-NAMES. 


PURTHAWAHERA ;  PORU  A  tfldCAllie,  bank  of 
the  plain. 

Now  contracted  to  Purth. 

PURTANEOCHT  ;  pORU  Atl  eoCUA,  bank  of  the 
breast. 

It  is  on  the  road  between  Leitrim  and  Car- 
rick-on-Shannon.  The  original  name  of  Carrick- 
on-Shannon  was  Caji<y6  *Opom<\  tluif  c,  i.e.,  Weir 
of  the  Watery  Ridge. — Four  Masters. 


UAKER  ISLAND;  OlteAtl-tlA- 
SeACU  -  T)-UeAinptltt>  Island  of 
the  Seven  Churches;  now  Inis  Clo- 
thrann  in  Lough  Ree. 

The  churches  are  as  follows  : — 
{a)  Temple  Diarmid. 
(&)  Temple  Clogas,  or  Square  Belfry. 

(c)  Temple  Muire,  or  Lady's  Church. 

(d)  No  name  known. 

(e)  Church  of  the  Dead. 
(/)  Templemore. 

(g)  No  name  known. 


ATHWALDRON:  TlAC 
UAVOtlOtl,  Waldron's  fort: 

Renaghan;  UAiuneACAti 

a  fern  shrubbery. 

Mackanranny  (THe^c^n  |iaic- 
mge,  Land  of  parsnips  and  of 
fern),  situated  near  Mount  Temple,  County 
Westmeath. — G  Donovan. 

Renaghanbawn  ;  ft^iuneACdn  t)Att,  white 
fern  shrubbery. 

This  place  is  now  Anglicised  Fern-borro\ 

RHYNE  ;  ftOltltl,  a  division. 
In  parish  of  Killoe. 

RlNARNEY ;  mrm  AltltieAt),  point  of  the  sloe- 
trees. 

This  is  a  point  opposite  Saints'  Island  in  Loch 
Ribh  (Ree).    It  is  now  written  "Arnee  Point" 
193  N 


194 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


on  the  map.  Officials  in  the  pay  of  the  English 
Government  have  done  their  part  in  the  work  of 
Anglicisation. 

RlNCOOLAGH  ;  tlMtl  CUtAC,  corner  point. 

RlNE  ;  tlinn,  a  headland. 

Lough  Rinn,  near  Mohill  *  got  its  name  from  a 
neck  of  land  stretching  into  the  lake.  On  this 
headland  was  built  one  of  the  castles  of  muincifi 
edl&Mf  (z\e.y  the  people  of  Eolas,  who  was  the 
thirty-seventh  in  descent  from  Conmac,  who 
was  the  progenitor  of  all  the  Conmaicne).  This 
castle  was  in  the  possession  of  Melaghlin  Mac- 
Rannal  (Reynolds),  who  owned  many  cartrons 
of  land.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  Maelsechlainn, 
which  means  one  devoted  to  St.  Sechnall,  who 
was  the  founder  of  the  church  of  Dunshaughlin, 
County  Meath,  was  pronounced  Melaghlin,  and 
is  now  Anglicised  Malachy,  as  a  Christian  name, 
and  MacLaughlin  as  a  surname. 

Rinneny;  ttOltltl  6lttie,  Enna's  divi- 
sion.— O1  Donovan. 

RiNGOWNEY  ;  TlOltin  5Arht1A15,  calf  s  division. 
RAHANISKE  ;  tlAt  AW  tUSCe,  fort  of  the  water. 


* Mohill  means  soft  land ;  its  former  name  was  ttUotAit  riUtiA- 
cAin,  i.e.,  the  Mohill  where  St.  Manchin  had  his  monastery,  to 
distinguish  it  from  other  places  of  the  name  m^ot-ait. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


195 


Ramoge  ;  UAU  1U015,  Moges  fort.— O 'Donovan. 

Rath  ;  tl^U,  an  artificial  mound. 

Raith  ;  11<\U,  same  meaning. 

Ratharney  ;  Kl&t  A1tina<y6,  fort  of  the  sloe- 
tree. 

Rathclittagh  (tlac  cleiceAc,  fort  of  the  plumes 
or  feathers),  situated  near  Rathowen,  County 
Westmeath. 

Rathbawn  ;  tlAt  t)An,  white  rath. 

Uac  tuific  was  the  former  name  of  Charle- 
ville,  in  County  Cork. 

Rathbracken  ;  Xl&t  t>tl&ACdlfl,  speckled  fort. 

RATHCLINE  ;  UAU  CtAOItl,*  sloping  rath. 

The  inversion  of  this  name  will  give  Clienrah 
(CtAon-tlAc),  a  townland  in  parish  of  Columcille. 

O'Quinn  (6  Cuinn),  Lord  of  Rathcline,  had 
a  castle  near  the  hill  of  Rathcline;  it  was 
destroyed  by  Cromwell.  Within  the  parish 
boundary  is  Inchenagh,  an  island  of  sixty  acres. 
In  the  year  183 1  there  were  six  human  habita- 
tions and  thirty-five  souls  on  this  island.  Weav- 
ing linen  and  making  frieze  was  the  industry. 

Crummey  (CfiomAi-d,  inclining-  ground),  a  townland  in  parish 
of  Kiltubride,  County  Leitrim.  Gortnawaun  (^Ojic  tia  bpAn, 
field  of  the  slopes),  situated  on  side  of  Sliabhaniarainn,  also 
in  parish  of  Kiltubride. 


196  PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


RATHCOR ;  RAt  CORR,  odd  fort. 

RATHCRONAN  ;  RAt  CROttAItt,  Cronan's  fort. 
"  In  1 166  Matudan,  grandson  of  Cronan,  Lord 
of  Cairbre  Grabha  (now  barony  of  Granard)  was 
killed  at  Granard." — Four  Masters.  Probably 
the  Cronan  mentioned  in  this  quotation  owned 
the  rath  and  made  it  his  fortress.  The  greater 
part  of  the  present  town  of  Granard  is  situated 
in  Rathcronan. 

Rathmore;  RAU  ttl  OR,  large  fort. 

RATHRAY  ;  RAU  R1AC,  grey  fort. 
Now  Foxhall. 

RATHSALLA  ;  RAU  SAtAC,  dirty  fort. 

SaIacau,  full  of  mire,  now  Sollaghan,  parish 
of  Scrabby,  County  Cavan.  t^ibAn,  in  parish  of 
Ballyloughloe  (bAite  Loca  Luaca),  now  Mount 
Temple,  County  Westmeath,  has  same  mean- 
ing.— (J  Donovan. 

RlNROE;  Rltltl  RUAt),  red  point. 

RiNROOEY;  Rltltl  RUt)A,  point  where  the  plant 
called  rue  grows. 

RlNVANNY;  Rirm  t)eAnnA1§e,  point  of  the 
peak  or  headland.  (Mount)  Neiphinn  is  derived 
from  neimh,  bright  {Dinneen,  p.  5 1 8),  and  bheann% 
a  peak  or  summit.  Ben  Nevis,  the  highest  moun- 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


197 


tain  in  Scotland,  has  the  same  meaning.  Beann 
Gulban  (now  Ben  Bulbiny  near  Sligo),  where 
Conaill  Gulban  was  fostered.  Beanna  Beola, 
Twelve  "Pins"  (Bens)  of  Beola,  in  Connemara. 
Barr-na-Beinne  is  the  name  of  the  summit  of 
Sliabh-an-iarainn  in  the  County  Leitrim.  From 
barr,  the  top,  comes  beretta.  Cut  bin  (now  Culvin, 
in  parish  of  Street),  back  of  peak. — (J Donovan. 

ROBINSTOWN  ;  ueitie  pot)Alt,  fire  of  the  tribe. 
This  townland  got  its  name  from  a  great  fire 
around  which  the  tribe  gathered.  The  Druids 
lighted  fires  on  May-day  and  drove  cattle  be- 
tween them,  with  incantations,  as  a  safeguard 
against  diseases  of  the  coming  year ;  hence 
beAtcAine  (May-day)  is  derived  from  Bza/y  an 
idol  god,  and  teine,  fire. 

The  Druids,  instructed  by  St.  Patrick,  put 
out  these  fires  on  the  1st  May,  and  lighted  them 
on  St.  John's  eve,  23rd  June,  in  honour  of  that 
Saint.  This  custom  (now  dying  out)  is  very 
old,  for  the  ceme  £eiLe  Coin,  the  fire  of  the 
Feast  of  John  the  Baptist,  is  mentioned  in  books 
of  the  tenth  century. 

ROCKFIELD ;  pAltlC  WA  CAWRAX^e. 

This  place  is  now  Anglicised  Dalystowji, 


198 


PLACE-NAMES. 


ROSDUFF  ;  tlOS  *Otlt),  black  wood. 

Ttof  means  also  promontory.  Ros-d&shoileach, 
i.e.,  promontory  of  the  two  willow-trees,  was  the 
ancient  name  of  the  city  of  Limerick. — (J Flaherty. 

ROOA  ;  tltlAt),  red  bog. 

ROOSE;  IVUtXA,  abounding  in  rue,  which  is  a 
plant  with  a  bitter  taste. 

ROSMODDY ;  IIOS  tHATDAt),  dogs'  wood. 

ROSROE ;  UOS  lltlAt),  red  wood. 

ROSSAN  ;  tlOSAtt,  small  wood,  shrubbery. 

RUSSAGH  ;  UOS  eAC,  wood  of  the  steeds. 

This  place  is  in  the  parish  of  Rathowen,  or 
rather  Russagh  was  formerly  joined  to  Rathowen. 
"MacRustaing,a  famous  jester,  was  buried  in  Rus- 
sagh. It  is  said  no  woman  can  look  at  his  grave 
without  uttering  a  foolish  laugh." — Kuno  Meyer. 

MacRustaing  was  the  maternal  brother  of 
St.  Coemain  Brec,  and  was  probably  an  eccle- 
siastic, as  he  is  spoken  of  as  one  of  the  eight 
distinguished  scholars  of  Armagh,  about  the 
year  740.  St.  Coemain  Brec,  Abbot  of  Roseach, 
died  14th  September,  615  A.D. — Dr.  Todd. 

There  are  at  Russagh  the  ruins  of  an  old 
church  and  graveyard,  also  a  mount  on  which 
grows  a  bush  said  to  be  the  centre  of  Ire- 
land,— O*  Donovan. 


AINTS    ISLAND;  OlteAtl 

x\&  tiAorh. 

After  the  dissolution  of  the 
monastery,  built  by  St.  Ciaran 
in  554,  on  this  island,  a  convent 
was  erected  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  by  Sir  H.  Dillon,  for 
the  Poor  Clares,  called  the  "  Convent  of  Beth- 
lehem." In  1642  some  soldiers  made  a  raid  on 
the  island,  but  the  nuns  made  good  their  escape 
to  another  island  called  since  then,  Nuns'  Island. 
Dillon  of  Kilkenny  West  having  heard  of  this 
outrage,  collected  his  followers,  attacked  and 
killed  the  soldiers.  In  the  library  at  Oxford 
is  preserved  a  book  of  annals  written  on  this 
Island  by  Augustine  MacGraidin,  who  died  in 
1405.    The  island  is  now  connected  with  the 

mainland  by  a  causeway, 
199 


200 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Sallow  Island;  oiteAtl  tiA  SAiteOg,  island 
of  the  little  willow  or  sallow  trees. 

Saileog  is  the  diminutive  of  sail,  which  is 
derived  from  the  old  Irish  word  sofilltiy  soft. 

SCRAMOGE ;  SCtieAmOg,  an  excrescence. 

-  SCREEBOGE;  SCReAt)05,  underwood,  also  a 
marsh. 

SHANMULLAGH  ;  seAH-rhUttAC,  old  summit. 
Sean  cuac,  old  round  hollow ;  situated  in 
Tirerrill,  County  Sligo.  A  branch  of  the 
learned  family  of  the  O'Duigenans  lived  here ; 
they  wrote  the  (now  lost)  Book  of  Glenda- 
lougk. — 0' Curry. 

SHANTUM  ;  SeAtl-UOtTI,  old  thicket. 

SHARVOGE  ;  seARt)05,  bitter  grass. 

SHLIGAN  ;  StljteAn,  a  little  road. 

SHREEROE ;  SIX)  TltlAt),  literally,  red  fairy. 

As  it  was  thought  that  fairies  had  their  cij\- 
nA  ri-65,  or  heaven,  in  the  interior  of  hills,  hence 
pt),  a  fairy,  came  to  mean  a  fairy-hill.  An  c-Si*6 
mofi, great  hill;  a  remarkable  excrescence  in  the 
parish  of  Kiltoghert,  County  Leitrim. — O' Dono- 
van. 

SliREWAN  ;  S1U)UA1t1,  a  rivulet. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


201 


Shrewanfilan  ;    snut&m  t)AOi$eAttAin, 

Boylan's  rivulet. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  stream  in  Upper 

Creevy,  parish  of  Abbeylara.  Sfiot<\n  means  a 
little  fish-stream. 

Slieve  ;  StlAt),  a  mountain,  also  a  moor;  some- 
times applied  to  upland  covered  with  heath. 

Slieve  Cairbre;  stlAt)  CAltlt>tl6* 

This  was  the  name  of  the  mountainous 
district  to  the  north  of  the  barony  of  Granard. 
It  was  called  after  Cairbre,  the  eldest  son 
of  Niall  of  the  Nine  Hostages.  Part  of  this 
mountainous  district  is  very  barren,  owing,  it  is 
said,  to  St.  Patrick's  curse  for  the  grave  insult 
he  received  from  those  who  offered  him  a  dressed 
hound  for  dinner.  This  ridge  of  hills,  commenc- 
ing at  Cairn-hill  and  stretching  into  Colum-cille, 
and  Drumard,  formed  the  dividing  line  between 
Muintir  Eolais  and  Carbury.  From  the  old 
books  we  know  that  Muintir  Eolais  extended 
from  Lough  Allen  to  Corn-hill  {rede,  Cairn- 
hill). 


*  Slieve  Cairbre  was  the  northern,  and  the  River  Inny  the 
southern,  boundary  of  Annaly. — &  Donovan* 


202  PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Slieve  Golry  ;  stiAt)  s-cAttunge  * 

The  more  ancient  name  of  this  hill  was 
Bri-Leitk,  t,e.f  the  hill  of  Liath.  Its  present 
name  comes  from  the  ancient  name  of  the  dis- 
trict in  which  it  is  situated.  From  Bri  came 
Breffney,  the  name  of  that  large  hilly  territory 
which  extended  from  Drumcliff,  in  County  Sligo, 
to  Kells,  in  Meath.  It  included  the  whole  of 
Leitrim  and  Cavan  Counties,  and  parts  of  Sligo 
and  Meath,  and  was  the  territory  of  the 
O'Rourkes  and  O'Reillys. 

In  the  interior  of  Slieve  Golry,  according  to 
an  old  legend,  Midir,  a  noted  fairy  of  the  Tuatha 
Dedannan  race,  had  his  cip  n<\  n-65,  or  heavenly 
country.  The  following  is  a  translation  by 
O'Curry,  of  an  old  description  of  Midir 's  palace, 
under  the  sidh  of  Bri-Liath  : — 

"  O  Befind,  wilth  thou  come  with  me, 
To  a  wonderful  land  that  is  mine, 
Where  the  hair  is  like  the  blossom  of  the  golden 

sobarche,f 
Where  the  tender  body  is  as  fair  as  snow. 

*  Sliabh  in  Scotland  means  a  marshy  place  or  land  on  the 
side  of  barren  hills.  "M6in,  a  bog",  would  nearly  correspond 
to  the  Scottish  meaning  of  sliabh,  and  is  cognate  with  the 
Latin,  mons,  a  mountain."  Mdintedn  in  Irish  means  mountain 
land,  and  from  it  comes  the  English  word  mountain. 

t  Primrose, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


203 


"  There  shall  be  neither  grief  nor  care , 
White  are  the  teeth,  black  the  eyebrows, 
Pleasant  to  the  eye  the  number  of  our  host ; 
On  every  cheek  is  the  hue  of  the  fox  glove. 

"  Crimson  of  the  plain  is  each  brake, 

Delightful  to  the  eye  the  blackbird's  eggs ; 
Tho'  pleasant  to  behold  are  the  plains  of  Inisfail, 
Rarely  wouldst  thou  think  of  them  after  frequent- 
ing the  great  plain. 

"Though  intoxicating  thou  deemest  the  ales  of 
Inisfail, 

More  intoxicating  are  the  ales  of  the  great  land — 
The  wonderful  land — the  land  I  speak  of, 
Where  youth  never  grows  to  old  age. 

"Warm  sweet  streams  traverse  the  land, 
The  choicest  of  mead  and  wine ; 
Handsome  people  without  blemish, 
Conception  without  sin,  without  stain. 

"  We  see  everyone  on  every  side, 
And  no  one  seeth  us ; 
The  cloud  of  Adam's  transgression 

Has  caused  this  concealment  of  us  from  them. 

"O  lady,  if  thou  comest  to  my  valiant  people, 
A  diadem  of  gold  shall  be  on  thy  head ; 
Flesh  of  swine,  all  fresh,  banquets  of  new  milk 
and  ale, 

Shalt  thou  have  with  me  there,  O  Befind." 


204 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


This  Midir  was  a  famous  chess  player;  his 
chess  board  was  of  solid  silver  and  gold,  orna- 
mented at  each  corner  with  diamonds  of  the 
richest  hue.     Mananan  MacLir  was  another 
famous  fairy  who  was  called  Neptune  (derived 
from  tiAorhca,  sacred,  and  corm,  a  wave),  or  god 
of  the  ocean.    His  ciji  n<x  n-65  was  at  Lake 
Enniskeen,  in  County  Monaghan.    Having  got 
some  unpleasant  tidings  from  St.  Columcille,  he 
took  his  exit  one  morning  for  Armenia.  He 
was  succeeded  by  MacMoineanta,  who  was  chief 
of  the  Ulster  "good  people."    This  gentleman 
took  up  his  residence  on  the  hill  of  Ballymac- 
killeany,  now  the  hill  of  Scrabby,  in  the  County 
Cavan. 

Among  the  seven  bu<v6<\,  or  prerogatives,  of 
the  King  of  Tara  was  pfieAcmeAp,  or  heath-fruit, 
from  Bri-Liath,  in  County  Longford,  to  be  sent 
to  him  in  August. — Book  of  Rights. 

SMEARE ;  smeAtl,  blackberry. 

Sonnagh  ;  SOtltlAlt),  a  mound,  a  palisade  * 

*  tTltjfttAti  is  another  name  for  a  mound.  There  is  on  the 
south-eastern  shore  of  Loch  Allen  (toe  -Aittmne),  off  the  road 
leading  from  Drumsheanbo  to  Drumreilly,  a  small  wall  or 
mound  (probably  the  remnant  of  an  ancient  church)  called 
mufttAn.  It  is  this  ancient  ruin  that  has  given  the  name 
Murthan  (pronounced  Murthaun),  to  parish  of  Drumshean- 
bo."— 0?  Donovan. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD.  205 

 — —    -  ■  -   -  -  -  .|T.  _.|fr    1ir.  n||r 

SPRINGPARK ;  tOtlgAtl,  leg-shaped. 

SORAN  ;  SOtttl,  a  kiln,  or  place  for  making  lime. 

Soran  Kelly;  sontl  Hi  CeAUA1§,  Kelly's 
lime-kiln. 

Cloonave  (CtuAin  Atria,  lawn  of  kiln),  situated 
in  parish  of  Street,  County  Westmeath. 

Soran  Scanlan  ;  sotin  trf  scAtititAiti. 
Soran  Coyle;  sotiti  tine  §iottACAOiU 

SRAID ;  All  Z-SR&IT),  the  street. 
In  parish  of  Temple-Michael. 

Sragarrow;  STt&t  gAtlt),  rough  holm,  or  river- 
meadow. 

Setrassaun  (Sjiau  *OpiofAri),  Sragarn  (Sjtac 
cajiti),  townlands  in  parish  of  Mohill,  mean, 
respectively,  holm  of  the  brambles  and  holm  of 
the  cairns. — 0} Donovan. 

Sraigormely;    sUAt  tii  gotimptAit, 
Gormely's  holm. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  place  in  the  townland 
of  Derrycassan.  Dopping's  avenue  runs  through 
it  now.  People  of  the  name  Gormely  lived  here 
formerly,  hence  the  name.  Shrabra  (Stuc  bpeag, 
beautiful  srath);  in  parish  of  Kilronan, 


206 


PLACE-NAMES. 


Street;  cAisteAti  tiA  sn&me. 

ITlAg  tfyeAcpAije,  which  means  speckled  plain, 
was  the  ancient  name  of  Street.  The  former 
name  of  Broomstreet  (near  Mohill,  County 
Leitrim),  was  Spawn*  tiA  fcuAb. 

Streamstown';  t)A1te  All  U-SftUUAItl,  town  of 
the  stream. 


I  AGSHEENODE;  UOAC- 
S1t115-0l5e,  church  or  cell  of 
the  Virgin  Sineach. — 0? Dono- 
van. 

A  house  is  called  teach  in  reference  to  the 
roof  or  covering  {tectum).  Tigh  is  the  word 
used  in  Munster  for  a  house ;  toigk,  in  Ulster ; 
in  Meath  tigh>  stigk,  stagh  were  in  use.  Taugh- 
boyne  is  derived  from  UeAc  bAecin,  z>.,  St. 
Baethin's  Church,  County  Donegal.  Stillorgany 
derived  from  U15  LopcAin,  Lorc&n's  house.  Ted- 
avnet  {toigh  Damhnaidhe)y  County  Monaghan. 

Tarmon  ;  ue^RmAnn,  glebe-land* 

Tearmann,  derived  from  the  old  Irish,  ter- 
mondd,  means  a  sanctuary  or  protection.    In  a 

*  u  Let  the  Terminus  of  a  holy  place  have  marks  about  it 
Wherever  you  find  the  sign  of  the  Cross  of  Christ  do  not  do 
any  injury.  Three  persons  consecrate  a  Terminus,  a  king", 
a  bishop,  and  the  people/' — Lanigan. 

207 


208  PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


secondary  sense  it  means  land  attached  to  a 
church,  defined  with  pillar-stones  and  crosses, 
within  which  the  fugitive  found  safety.  Secular 
chiefs  could  not  exact  taxes  from  the  inhabitants 
of  the  tearmann%  but  the  latter  were  subject  to 
the  church  or  monastery  to  which  their  lands 
belonged,  and  paid  rent  to  it. 

Tarmonbarry;  ueATtmAritt  beAtiAig, 

St.  Bearach's  (Barry)  tarmon  or  sanctuary. 

I  shall  give  here  a  brief  sketch  of  the  life  of 
St.  Barry. 

St.  Patrick  having  failed  to  convert  the  people 
of  that  part  of  Leitrim  around  Cloon,  uttered 
the  following  prophecy:  "Brethren,  have  patience 
for  a  while,  for  after  me  shall  soon  appear  a 
man  to  be  born  in  these  parts  and  of  this  very 
race,  who  will  remove  error  from  among  them 
by  his  life  and  doctrine.  Not  alone  shall  he 
convert  this  pervert  and  fierce  clan  you  now 
behold,  but  even  many  other  people  such  as 
these  are  shall  he  bring  as  gentle  lambs  to  Christ 
by  his  powerful  reasoning.,,  This  prophecy  was 
verified. 

The  saintly  old  Fraech,  who  lived  at  Cloon, 
County  Leitrim,  having  finished  his  prayers, 
took  a  walk  out  one  midnight  and  saw  a  "  bright 
luminous  halo"  over  the  house  of  his  brother-in- 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


209 


law,  Nemnald,  who  lived  at  Gortnaluachra  (field 
of  rushes),*  near  Cloon  River,  in  Conmaicne  of 
Muintir-Eolais,  now  South  Leitrim.  Wondering 
what  this  brightness  at  such  an  hour  meant,  he 
said  to  his  disciple :  "  Go  to  the  house  of  Nem- 
nald and  see  has  my  sister  given  birth  to  a  son, 
and,  if  so,  bring  the .  boy  to  me."  The  disciple 
did  so,  and  brought  back  to  Fraech  a  beautiful 
baby.  The  child  was  to  be  called  Fintan,  but 
when  at  the  font  the  parents  suggested  that  it 
should  be  called  Bearach  (now  Barry).  "Rightly," 
answered  Fraech,  "has  this  name  been  given 
to  him,  for  this  boy  shall  be  a  saint,  and  his 
place  shall  be  in  heaven."  ("  Bearach  means  one 
who  takes  a  direct  and  an  exact  aim  at  an 
object." — Colgan.) 

Till  the  age  of  seven  years  the  boy  lived  with 
Uncle  Fraech,  who  then  sent  him  to  the  School 
of  Dagaeus,  at  Iniscaoin,  in  County  Louth. 
After  a  time  Dagaeus,  seeing  the  great  sanctity 
and  intelligence  of  young  Bearach,  gave  him  a 
tomcat  seAjijt,  or  short  crozier,  and  sent  him  to 
St.  Kevin  of  Glendalough.f  This  crozier  is  now 
to  be  seen  in  the  Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy.    After  spending  some  time  under 

*  Gortnaluachra  is  midway  between  Cloon  and  Mohill. 
t  gteAtiti  -OA  toe,  Valley  of  the  two  lakes,  originally  gteAtiti 
T)e,  or  Valley  of  God. 

O 


2  10 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


St.  Kevin,  Bearach  was  directed  by  Providence 
to  place  his  baggage  on  a  deer  and  to  follow  its 
course.  The  deer  brought  him  to  an  unknown 
place  which  the  young  Saint  called  Chiain- 
coirpthe,  i.e.,  meadow  of  corruption,  in  reference 
to  some  dead  bodies  which  he  found  on  his 
arrival  there,  which  place  is  now  called  Kilbarry 
[Cllt-beApAig),  or  St.  Barry's  Church. 

Now  Bearach  got  into  trouble  with  a  Druid 
regarding  the  possession  of  Cluain-coirpthe.  The 
case  was  referred  to  Aedan,  King  of  Scotland, 
who  decided  that  Hugh  the  Black,  of  Breffney, 
and  Hugh,  King  of  Teffia,  should  be  judges  in 
the  case.  On  behalf  of  Bearach  the  two  holy 
virgins  of  Clonbroney,  Samthann  and  Attracta 
were  called  in.  The  Black  King  of  Breffney 
being  somewhat  ashamed  of  his  appearance,  felt 
unwilling  to  appear  before  "so  many  fine  respec- 
table men  and  women.'5  He  asked  Bearach  to 
remove  his  deformity.  It  is  fabled  that  the 
Saint  did  so,  and  that  the  Black  King  was  ever 
afterward  called  * Aodhfionn,"  or  "Hugh  the 
Fair."  He  was  the  progenitor  of  the  O'Rourkes 
and  O'Reillys  of  Breffney,  and  lived  about 
574  a.d.  Meantime  death  had  removed  the 
obdurate  Druid,  and  Bearach  took  possession 
of  Cluain-coirpthe,  and  erected  a  monastery  at 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


211 


the  place  now  called  Kilbarry,  in  the  parish  of 
Tarmonbarry.  Some  distance  above  the  bridge 
of  Tarmonbarry,  and  near  the  old  church,  is  St. 
Bearach's  (Barry's)  Well.  The  Saint  had  another 
holy  well  at  Mostrim  {recte,  Meathustruim). 

Tashinny;  ueAC  S1t11§  *  St.  Shineach's  Church. 
Teach  is  sometimes  applied  to  a  church  or 
priory.  In  the  twelfth  century  there  was  a 
priory  founded  at  Nenagh  called  Teach-Eoin, 
because  it  was  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist. 
Eoin  being  the  old  Irish  name  for  John. 

TEEMORE;  Ulj  m OR,  big  house. 

Tinode  (U15  au  p6it)),  house  of  the  sod;  in 
parish  of  Street. — O Do7iovan. 
Temple  Michael;    ceAmptltt  rhicit,  St. 
Michael's  Church. 

This  is  the  ancient  name  of  the  present  parish 
of  Longford.    One-and-a-half  cartrons  of  land 
were  attached  to  Temple  Michael. 
Temple  Diarmaid;  ueAmpuU,  t>iAfttriA>0<\, 
Diarmaid's  Church. 

This  is  an  old  diminutive  church  built  on  the 
eastern  side  of  Inis  Clothrann,in  Loch  Ribh(Ree). 

*  "  In  1223  26  feet  were  added  to  the  Church  of  Tigh 
Sincha,  in  County  Longford,  by  the  priest  of  the  town,  Mael 
Magorman."  M  In  12 17  Gilchrist  Magorman,  the  great  priest 
of  Tashinny,  in  County  Longford,  died  on  his  pilgrimage  to 
the  sanctuary  on  Inis  Clothrann." 


212  PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Temple  Mary;  ceAtnptitt  rhtime,  church 
dedicated  to  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary. 

1Tlui|ie  is  a  special  name  for  Mary,  the  Mother 
of  God ;  all  other  women  of  the  name  Mary 
are  called,  in  Irish,  til Aijie.  Teampull  Mhuire  is 
one  of  the  seven  churches  on  Inis  Clothrann. 
It  has  no  history  worth  recording. 

TENELICK;  C1§  tlA  teice,  house  of  the  flag- 
stone. 

Tisaran  (Ci5-SA|iAin),  St.  Saran's  church  or 
cell.    In  parish  of  Ferbane,  King's  County. 

TENALOUGH;  C15  11 A  toC,  house  by  the  ponds. 

TEERHENNESSY ;    OR  AOngUSA,  Angus'  dis- 
trict. 

1TlAot-cinn-ci|Ae  (now  Mull  of  Cantire),  bald 
point  of  headland. 

Teerlicken  ;  U1R  LeiC1t1,  a  district  abounding 
in  flag-stones. 

"There  is  a  holy  well  in  townland  of  Teerlicken, 
County  Longford,  called  St.  Patrick's." — Oy Dono- 
van. 

Thum  ;  com,  a  thicket. 

This  place  is  in  parish  of  Scrabby.  It  is 
politely,  but  corruptly,  now  written  and  pro-, 
nounced  "  Toome." 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


213 


TlMPAUN  ;  UIOmpAtl,  round  hilh 

There  is  also  a  place  of  this  name  in  the  north- 
east of  the  parish  of  Kilronan,  County  Ros- 
common.— CP  Donovan. 

Tinanar;  Ulg  ttA  n-Att,  house  of  the  slaughters. 

Tipper  ;  u10t)Atl,  a  well. 

Tobar  and  tiobraid  are  other  forms  of  this  word. 
Druimtiobraid  (ie.y  ridge  of  the  well)  was  the 
ancient  name  of  Clonmacnoise.  Tipper  is  the 
name  of  a  townland  in  parish  of  Newtown- 
cashel. 

TUPPER  or  TUBBER  ;  UObdll,  a  well. 
This  place  is  now  called  "  Prospect." 

TUPPERAHAFFREY ;  UOb^tl  SOAFTUMt),  Geof- 
frey's Well. 

Situated  in  John  MacCabe's  land,  in  Clougher- 
nal,  parish  of  Abbeylara. 

Tupperbride;   COt)Atl  tttllg^e,   St.  Brigid's 
holy  well 

This  well  is  in  the  townland  of  Banohill,  parish 
of  Ardagh.  The  learned  O'  Donovan  failed  to 
give  the  etymology  of  Banohill.  I  therefore 
passed  it  over,  because  I  could  not  hope  to 
succeed  where  that  eminent  Celtic  scholar  failed. 
The  Brigid  mentioned  here  is  the  "illustrious 
veiled  woman  of  Leinster,"  and  Patroness  of 


214 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


Kildare.  According  to  Eoghan  O'Curry  and 
Professor  O'Looney  it  was  St.  Mel  who  professed 
St.  Brigid,  and  the  ceremony  took  place  at 
Ardagh. 

TUPPERCLOCREE  ;  CODAft  CtOCtllg,  well  of  the 
stone  of  the  king. 

This  is  a  holy  well  near  the  old  church  in  the 
parish  of  Kilcomock. 

TUPPEREENDONEY ;     COt)Atl  Tt1$  ATI  T)0til- 
H/&15,  well  of  the  King  of  Sunday. 

This  is  a  holy  well  in  the  townland  of  Bally- 
boy  (b<\ile  buit>e),  parish  of  Abbeylara.  "A 
well  of  great  sanctity,  probably  of  Pagan  origin." 
— O Donovan.  There  is  another  holy  well  of 
the  same  name  in  the  parish  of  Ardagh.  It  is 
probable  that  these  holy  wells  were  so  named 
because  people  were  baptized  out  of  them  on 
Sunday. 

TUPPERFELIM  ;  COtXAtl  £eit)tim,  Felim's  well. 
Felimy  derived  from  fedil-maith^  means  ever- 
lasting good.  This  well  has  given  its  name  to 
a  townland  in  the  parish  of  Abbeylara.  "It  is 
not  now  considered  holy,  but  probably  it  was 
formerly." — CP  Donovan.  Near  it  is  an  old  effaced 
graveyard,  and,  men  making  sewers  some  years 
ago,  came  upon  human  bones  and  boards. 


I 

! 


From  Photo  by]  [Rev.  J.  MacGivney. 

(St.  Fintan*s  Well,  parish  of  Street.) 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


215 


Tupperfintan  ;  UOt>AR  piOlltlC&ll,  St.  Fintan's 
well. 

From  the  genitive  the  baptismal  name  is  gene- 
rally taken. — Annals  of  Ulster. 

Rev.  Wm.  Monaghan,  P.P.,  Street,  put  a  stop 
to  the  Pattern  at  St.  Fintain's  Well  about  40 
years  ago. — 0' Donovan,  who  wrote  the  above 
about  1837. 

This  is  a  holy  well  in  a  place  called  Queens- 
land, parish  of  Street.  Stations  are  performed 
at  it  on  the  first  Sunday  of  harvest.  Of  the 
Saint's  Church  no  trace  now  remains.  It  is 
traditionally  told  that  the  Saint  is  interred  in  a 
small  mound,  called  on  the  Ordnance  Survey 
Map  Kinard  (recte,  Ceann-drd)*  high  head  ; 
which  mound  is  to  be  seen  on  the  bank  of 
a  rivulet  to  the  east  of  Lismacaffrey.  The 
Saint's  holy  well  was  much  neglected  till  the 
late  Mr.  Con  Fagan,  of  Lismacaffrey,  erected 
a  cross  and  pailing  around  it,  and  left  beside  it 
an  At),  for  drinking  its  pure  water. 

TUPPERGOWNA;  UOt)Atl  gArhriA. 

This  well  got  its  name  from  a  legend  about  a 
calf.  It  is  said  to  be  the  head  or  source  of 
Loch  Gamhna,  which  in  turn,  is  said  to  be  the 


*  "  There  was  a  nunnery  called  '  Kenard,'  on  the  lands  of 
Clonmore,  parish  of  Street." — O'  Donovan. 


2x6 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


head  or  source  of  Loch  Erne.  Tobargowna  is 
in  the  townland  of  Rathbracken,  parish  of 
Granard.  I  don't  think  it  is  regarded  as  holy, 
though  Dr.  O'Donovan  says  it  is  a  "well  of 
great  sanctity." 

Tupperlunny;   UOt)Aft  Untie,  well  of  the 
pond. 

TUPPER-NA-MAN-EVE;  UOt)Atl  tl  AftltKVH  tlAOttl* 
well  of  the  saintesses  or  holy  women. 

This  holy  well  is  situated  in  the  village  of 
Abbeylara,  on  the  right-hand  side  of  a  small 
pass  which  takes  one  off  the  main  road  from 
Granard  to  the  Catholic  Church  of  Abbeylara. 
From  the  name  of  this  well  some  are  inclined  to 
think  that  formerly  there  was  a  convent  in 
Abbeylara.  "  If  the  saintesses  were  like  our 
modern  nuns  this  well  would  be  called  cobAp  n<* 
5-CAiLteAc." — 0s  Donovan. 

TUPPERPATRICK ;  UOt)Atl  p  A  T>  11 A 1  Saint 
Patrick's  well. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  holy  well  in  the  town- 
land  of  Thum,  parish  of  Scrabby.  There  is  a 
holy  well  in  the  townland  of  Forgney,  which 
bears  this  name,  though  one  would  think  it 
should  be  called  after  St.  Munis,  who  was 


*  Not  now  regarded  as  holy. 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


217 


the  first  Christian  bishop  of  that  place.  There 
is  a  holy  well  called  after  St.  Patrick  in  the 
parish  of  Dromard,  and  another  near  Granard- 
kill.  When  St.  Patrick  came  to  Granard  he 
found  Cairbre's  Druids  performing  their  cere- 
monies at  a  well  which  lies  to  the  east  of  Granard- 
cille.  In  order  to  gradually  win  over  the  people 
to  the  true  faith,  St.  Patrick  having  blessed  this 
well,  permitted  the  people  to  continue  their 
veneration  at  it,  but  to  offer  up  their  prayers  to 
the  Saviour,  and  not  to  the  false  god  of  the 
fountain.  "In  1837  three  remarkable  ash-trees 
(says  O'Donovan)  grew  over  this  well,  two  living 
and  one  decayed.  There  was  always  left  at  it  an 
An  or  peaba  for  drinking,  but  not  one  of  silver, 
as  of  old/'  In  ancient  times  kings  left  silver 
cups  at  wells  "  for  the  drinking  of  weary  men/' 
If  the  cups  remained  undisturbed  the  king  knew 
his  laws  were  observed. 

TUPPEREVOGUE ;    COt>Atl  Xl&YOe  ftth^e,  well 
of  the  soft  plain. 

Toneen  (in  parish  of  Granard);  CtlltlTtl,  little 
bottom  land. 

Toneen  (in  parish  of  Moydow);  C0lt11t1,  little 
paddock.— O'Donovan. 


2l8 


PLACE-NAMES  OF  THE 


TONNYFUBBLE;  ueitie  potX<Mt,  fire  of  the  tribe. 
This  place  was  also  called  toaite  tloibin,  now 
Robinstown,  and  it  contains  two  cartrons  of 
land,  or  about  200  acres. 

TONNYWARDEN;    C  0  tt  tl  U  T  X)  A  11*0  A1  tl, 
O'Bardan's  bottom  land. 

Toorfin  ;  UUR  pionn,  white  tower. 

"  The  tower  called  Conaing's  Tower  is  said 
to  have  been  on  an  island  on  the  north  coast  of 
Ireland,  now  called  Uojunif,  Tower  Island, 
corrupted  into  Tory  Island." — Dr.  Todd. 

Toorin  ;  ctlltlTn,  little  tower. 
TOWNAGH ;  UArhtlAC,  green  field. 

Townaghmore;  COtlAlt)  tTMAft,  green  great 
bottom  lands. 

On  these  lands  the  great  monastery  of  Abbey- 
lara  was  built.  No  wonder  that  their  name 
signifies  green,  for  they  were  made  green  and 
fertile  by  the  industry  of  the  monks,  who  culti- 
vated them  from  the  days  St.  Gusacht  founded 
his  monastery  there  in  fifth  century,  to  the 
surrender  of  Tuite's  monastery  about  1541. 
Townaghmore  contained  two  cartrons  of  land,  of 
the  yearly  value  of  13/4,  at  the  time  of  the  sur- 
render of  the  monastery.  It  is  now  a  large 
grazing  ranch  off  which  the  cattle  had  been 
lately  driven  by  night, 


COUNTY  LONGFORD. 


219 


Treanboy;  CRIAtl   tttiroe,  yellow  ternal  divi- 
sion. 

Treel  ;  CtiAOIt,  a  stripe  of  land. 

Tree-lick-a-curry  ;   Utll  t1Ag  A  CtltltlA1$, 
three  stones  of  the  moor. — 0? Donovan. 

Treelickatemple  ;  CUT  U&g  A  teAmptUtt, 
three  stones  of  the  church. 

Tromera  ;  UtlOtntlA,  where  alder  trees  grow. 
To  the  east  of  this  townland  is  a  fort  called 
Ce<vo<\6  boon.  Trim,  the  chief  town  of  Meath, 
got  its  name  from  alder  trees  which  grew  over 
the  Boyne  there.  Its  Irish  form  is  b<\ite  aua 
cptntn,  i.e..  Town  of  ford  of  alder  tree.  Tromera 
contains  two  cartrons  of  land,  and  was  formerly 
a  populous  place.  It  is  near  the  town  of  Gran- 
ard.  Tromlan  [(UjuomUxn,  abounding  in  alder 
trees),  situated  in  parish  of  Killenummery, County 
Leitrim.  5|teAc-n<x-pe^riA,  mountain  flat  of  the 
alder  tree ;  also  in  Killenummery. 

TULLY  ;  Atl  UUtAC,  also  CUL&1§,  the  little  hill. 
Tulach  is  a  hill  of  conical  shape,  seen  in 
various  parts  of  Ireland.  In  ancient  times  it 
was  used  as  a  burial  ground.  Tulach  is  said  to 
be  derived  from  tul,  an  old  Irish  word  meaning 
naked.    "  Bri  is  another  term  of  a  hill  and  is 


220 


PLACE-NAMES. 


cognate  with  the  Scotch  brae? — (J Donovan. 
Tully  is  also  written  Tullow>  Tulla,  Tullagh. 
Uut<\c  TDongAin,  the  name  of  a  hill  near  Cavan 
town,  where  the  O'Reillys,  princes  of  East  Breff- 
ney  were  formerly  inaugurated.  "Brefney  is, 
according  to  Steward's  Topography,  derived  from 
Bri}  a  hill,  and  therefore  signifies  the  country  of 
hills." — O'Hart.  Tulcon  (Uutcon,  hill  of  hound), 
situated  near  Mohill.  Mace(tTlof,  a  rich  hill); 
it  is  near  Rathowen  (Rat  665 aw),  County  West- 
meath. — Q>  Donovan. 

TULLYS  ;  tlA  UtlLAlg,  the  hillocks. 

TULLYBAWN  ;  UUtAC  t)AH,  white  hillocks. 

Tullybrian  ;  UUtAC  t>tt1A1t1,  O'Brien's  hill. 

TURBOY;  UOTt  tmrOe,  yellow  bush. 


ADDENDUM. 


Cloonadonald;  CVUAW  t)OrhnA1tt,  Donald's 
meadow. 

COWANAMONOG;  At)Airm  tlA  mCnO^,  river  of 
the  bogberries. 

Garryhemly;  SARUAi^e  tiotriAttAiS, 
Timothy's  land. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  place  in  Clough,  parish 
of  Abbeylara. 

Garryhaune;  5Atl1lAlt>e  Se<\5<\1  tl,  John's 
land. 

KlLMORE  (in  parish  of  Clongeish);  C01tt  tnOtl, 
big  wood. 

KlLMORE  (in  parish  of  Scrabby);  COil  mOtl,  large 
hazel. 

St.  Caillen  of  Fenagh  (p'otmac,  woods  of  large 
trees. — 0' Donovan),  blessed  a  Cathach,  which 
was  a  cross  made  of  hazel,  for  the  Conmaicne  tribe. 
Before  going  to  battle  an  ecclesiastic  carried  this 
Cathach  three  times  round  the  army  from  right 
to  left,  this  ceremony  gave  the  army  a  hope  of 
victory. 

221 


222 


ADDENDUM. 


Kilatraow;  COtt  A'  CtlAgA,  hazel  of  the  strand. 
This  is  the  name  of  a  place  on  the  shores  of 
Loch  Gamhna  (Gowna). 

KlLLENLASTER ;  COltt  ATI    LASUtlA,  wood  of 
conflagration. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  townland  in  the  parish 
of  Moydow.  It  was  here  St.  Lupta  threw  the 
embers  from  her  bosom. — 0' Donovan. 

LOUGHILL  (in  parish  of  Ardagh);  teAtflCOVlt, 
wood  of  mallows,  a  plant  with  soft  leaves. 

MOSSTOWN  ;  t)Alte  CA011AC. 

"  Mosstown  was  defended  by  the  Newcombes, 
in  1641,  but  it  was  obliged  to  capitulate.  It  was 
garrisoned  by  the  same  family  for  King  William, 
and  was  unsuccessfully  besieged  by  James'  forces. 
The  Protestant  Church  was  built  by  the  Countess 
of  Ross  in  1833,  at  a  cost  of  ^2,ooo.') — Lewis'  Top. 
Diet.  Keenaghan  (CaonAcan,  mossy  land) ;  it  is 
east  of  cross-roads  between  Leitrim  and  Carrick- 
on-Shannon. 

Rapparree-HILL  ;   CHOC  TLOpAITte,  noisy  hill. 

Strokestown  ;  t)AHe  ti&  tntouitti. 

This  is  the  name  of  a  townland  in  parish  of 
Mostrim. 

Eithne,  ingen  Echach  Feidlig,  ben  aile  do 
Chonchobur  cetne,  mathair  Furbaidi  rnic  Con- 


ADDENDUM. 


223 


cobair  (1  is  airi  adberta  Furbaide  de  .i.  a  urbad 
no  a  gerrad  do  rindead  a  broind  a  mathar 
iarna  bathad  ar  glaiss  Bearramain  risa  raiter  in 
Eithne  ining,  *j  is  uaithisi  sloindter  in  aband,  .1. 
Eithne,  ie.,  "  Eithne  (Inny),  daughter  of  Eochaid 
Feidleach,  another  wife  of  the  same  Conchobar, 
mother  of  *  Furbaidhe/  son  of  Conchobar  (it  is 
therefore  he  was  called  Furbaidhe,  because  the 
*  urbad/  or  cutting  of  him  out  of  the  womb  of 
his  mother  was  performed  after  she  was  drowned 
in  the  stream  Bearramain,  which  is  called  the 
Eithne  (i.e.,  the  River  Inny  which  flows  through 
South  Longford),  to-day,  and  it  is  from  her  the 
river  takes  its  name,  namely  Eithne," 

The  above  piece  of  ancient  Irish  is  taken  from 
the  Book  of  Lecan.  Its  translation  is  given  in 
6jiiti,  a  journal  edited  by  Kuno  Meyer  and  the 
late  lamented  John  Strachan. 

The  Conchobar  mentioned  above  was  Conor 
MacNessa,King  of  Ulster,  who  ruled  that  province 
from  the  Court  of  "Emania  the  Golden/'  about  the 
time  of  the  birth  of  Christ  At  the  death  hour  of 
our  Lord,  Conchobar  called  his  druid  to  explain  to 
him  the  cause  of  the  sudden  darkness  which  fell 
over  the  country.  The  druid  informed  him  that 
the  innocent  God  was  being  put  to  death  at  that 
very  hour,  by  his  own  people,  etc.  In  a  temper 
Conchobar  rushed  for  his  sword  to  show  how  he 


ADDENDUM. 


would  strike  down  those  wicked  men  were  he  at 
the  Crucifixion.  His  anger  irritated  an  old 
wound  in  his  head,  which  caused  his  immediate 
death.  It  is  written  that  he  was  the  first  man  in 
Ireland  to  die  for  Christ. 

From  the  above  extract  we  learn  the  origin, 
antiquity,  and  correct  orthography  of  the  river- 
name  Inny;  we  also  learn  that  Bearramain  was 
its  more  ancient  name. 

u  With  a  bound  from  his  seat  rose  King  Conor,  the 

red  flush  of  rage  in  his  face, 
Fast  he  ran  through  the  hall  for  his  weapons,  and 

snatching  his  sword  from  its  place, 
He  rushed  to  the  woods,  striking  wildly  at  boughs 

that  dropped  down  with  each  blow, 
And  he  cried :  '  Were  I  midst  the  vile  rabble,  I 'd 

cleave  them  to  earth  even  so  ! 
With  the  strokes  of  a  high  King  of  Erin,  the 

whirls  of  my  keen-tempered  sword, 
Would  save  from  their  horrible  fury,  that  mild  and 

that  merciful  Lord.' 
His  frame  shook  and  heaved  with  emotion ;  the 

brain-ball  leaped  forth  from  his  head, 
And  commending  his  soul  to  his  Saviour,  King 

Conor  MacNessa  lay  dead." 

—  T.  D.  Sullivan, 
t>uit>eACAS  te  tha! 


ram